21 Letters In The Alphabet

21 Letters In The Alphabet – This article is about the alphabet used to write the Latin language. For modern alphabets derived from it used in other languages ​​and applications, see Latin alphabet and Latin alphabet.

This article contains phonetic transcriptions in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA). For an introduction to IPA symbols, see Reference: IPA. For the difference between [ ] , / / and ⟨  ⟩ see IPA § Brackets and transcription separators.

21 Letters In The Alphabet

21 Letters In The Alphabet

This article contains special characters. Without proper support for ordering, you may see question marks, frames, or other symbols.

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The Latin alphabet or Latin alphabet is a set of letters originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language and its extensions used to write modern languages.

The term “Latin alphabet” can refer either to the alphabet used to write Latin (as described in this article) or to other alphabets based on the Latin alphabet, which is the basic set of letters shared by the various alphabets derived from the Classical Latin alphabet, such as the glish alphabet. These Latin alphabets can drop letters, like the Rotokas alphabet, or add new letters, like the Danish and Norwegian alphabets. The letterforms evolved over the centuries, including the development in medieval Latin of lower case, forms that did not exist in the classical period alphabet.

The Latin alphabet evolved from the visually similar Etruscan alphabet, which evolved from the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, itself derived from the Phoenician alphabet, which in turn derived from Egyptian hieroglyphs.

The Etruscans ruled early Rome; their alphabet was developed in Rome over the following centuries to create the Latin alphabet. In the Middle Ages, the Latin alphabet was used (sometimes with modifications) to write the Romance languages, which are direct descendants of Latin, as well as Celtic, Germanic, Baltic and some Slavic languages. With the era of colonialism and Christian evangelicalism, the Latin script spread beyond Europe, being used to write Native American, Australian, Austronesian, Austroasiatic, and African languages. More specifically, linguists also prefer the Latin alphabet or the International Phonetic Alphabet (which is itself largely based on the Latin alphabet) when transcribing or creating writing standards for non-European languages, such as the African Reference Alphabet.

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Although Latin did not use diacritics, word truncations, often placed above or after the truncated word, were very common. In addition, abbreviations or overlapping smaller letters were often used. This was because if the text was carved on stone, the number of letters that needed to be written was reduced, and if it was written on paper or parchment, it saved precious space. This habit was preserved even in the Middle Ages. There are hundreds of symbols and abbreviations that vary from page to page.

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The Latin alphabet used by the Romans is believed to be derived from the Old Italian alphabet used by the Etruscans.

21 Letters In The Alphabet

This alphabet is derived from the Euboean alphabet used by the Cumans, which in turn is derived from the Phoician alphabet.

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The Duos inscription, dating from the 6th century BC, shows the earliest known form of the Old Latin alphabet.

The Latin alphabet included 21 different characters. The letter ⟨C⟩ was the western form of the Greek scale, but it was used equally for the sounds /ɡ/ and /k/, possibly influenced by Etruscan, which may have lacked voiced plosives. Later, probably in the 3rd century BC, the letter ⟨Z⟩ – unnecessary for proper Latin writing – was replaced by a new letter ⟨G⟩, ⟨C⟩, replaced by a small vertical bar, which took its place in the alphabet. Beginning with th, ⟨G⟩ represented the voiced plosive /ɡ/, while ⟨C⟩ was usually reserved for the voiceless plosive /k/. The letter ⟨K⟩ was used only rarely, in a small number of words such as Kaldae, often interchangeable with ⟨C⟩.

After the conquest of Greece by the Romans in the 1st century BC. e. Latin adopted the Greek letters ⟨Y⟩ and ⟨Z⟩ (or superseded it in the latter case) to write Greek loanwords, placing them after d of the alphabet. Emperor Claudius’ attempt to enter three additional letters failed. Thus, in the period of classical Latin, the Latin alphabet contained 23 letters:

ó in the first line.) The vowel “I” is written higher, but does not have a peak. Interpoints are comma-shaped, an elaboration of the more typical triangular shape. From the Augustal temple in Herculaneum.

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The Latin names of some of these letters are disputed; for example, ⟨H⟩ can be pronounced [ˈaha] or [ˈaka].

In general, the Romans did not use traditional (Semitic) names like Greek: the names of plosives were formed by adding /eː/ to their sound (except for ⟨K⟩ and ⟨Q⟩, which needed different vowels to distinguish from ⟨C⟩), but the names of the continuants consisted of either a bare sound or a sound preceded by /e/.

The letter ⟨Y⟩ that was introduced was probably called “hy” /hyː/ as in Greek, the name epsilon was not yet used, but this was changed to “i Graeca” (Greek i) because Latin speakers had difficulty distinguishing it foreign language. sound /y/ from /i/. ⟨Z⟩ was given the Greek name zeta. This scheme continued to be used by most modern European languages ​​that adopted the Latin alphabet. For Latin sounds represented by different letters, see Latin spelling and pronunciation; for names of letters in Glish, see English alphabet

21 Letters In The Alphabet

Diacritical marks were not regularly used, but they did occasionally occur, the most common being an apical mark used to mark long vowels, which was sometimes doubled in earlier writing. However, instead of the top, the letter i was written higher: ⟨

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The main punctuation mark was the interpunct, which was used as a word separator, although it fell out of use after 200 AD.

Ancient Roman cursive, also called mauscule cursive and cursive capitalis, was an everyday form of handwriting used for writing letters by merchants writing business accounts, schoolchildren learning the Latin alphabet, and even emperors giving commands. The more formal style of writing was based on Roman square capitals, but italics were used for faster, informal writing. It was most commonly used from about the 1st century BC to the 3rd century BC, but it probably existed before that. This gave rise to the uncial, a musculature script commonly used by Latin and Greek scribes from the 3rd to the 8th century AD.

The New Roman Italic, also known as the Miniscule Italic, was used from the 3rd to the 7th century and uses letter shapes that are more recognizable to the modern eye; ⟨a⟩, ⟨b⟩, ⟨d⟩, and ⟨e⟩ had a more familiar shape, while the other letters were proportional to each other. This script developed into the medieval script known as Merovingian and Carolingian minuscule.

It was not until the Middle Ages that the letter ⟨W⟩ (originally a ligature of two ⟨V⟩s) was added to the Latin alphabet to represent sounds from Germanic languages ​​that did not exist in Medieval Latin, and it was not until Reisans that the custom of treating ⟨I⟩ and ⟨U ⟩ as vowels and ⟨J⟩ and ⟨V⟩ as consonants. Before that, the former were only allographs of the latter.

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With the fragmentation of political power, the style of writing changed and varied greatly during the Middle Ages, particularly after the advent of the printing press. Early deviations from classical forms were the uncial script, the development of the Old Roman cursive, and the various so-called miniscule scripts that developed from the New Roman cursive, of which the Insular script developed by Irish men of letters and its derivatives such as Carolingian miniscules were the most influential, introducing small letter forms, as well as other writing rules that have since become standard.

Languages ​​that use the Latin script usually use capital letters to start paragraphs, parts, and proper nouns. Capitalization rules have changed over time, and different languages ​​have different capitalization rules. Old English, for example, rarely capitalized proper nouns, whereas modern English writers and printers of the 17th and 18th centuries often capitalized most and sometimes all nouns,

Which is still systematically done in modern German, e.g. in the preamble and throughout the Constitution of the United States: We, the People of the United States, to form a more perfect Union, to establish justice, to secure internal tranquility, to provide for the common defense, to promote the general welfare, and to secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.

21 Letters In The Alphabet

This map shows the countries of the world that only use a language(s) written primarily in the Latin alphabet as their official (or de facto official) national language(s) in dark Greek script. The lighter gre indicates countries that use a language written primarily in the Latin alphabet

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