Synesius Letters To Hypatia
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Synesius Letters To Hypatia
Hypatia is known for being the greatest mathematician and astronomer of her time, for being the leader of the Neoplatonist school of philosophy in Alexandria, for spectacularly overcoming the profound sexism of her society, and for suffering a violent death at the hands of ignorant fanatics.
Hypatia Of Alexandria. An Outspoken Pagan And One Of The First…
Hypatia was brutally murdered by a mob of Christian fanatics. They pulled her from a carriage on the street in Alexandria, dragged her to a church, stripped her naked, beat her to death and/or skinned her, tore off her limbs, and burned her remains.
Hypatia, (born c. 355 AD – died March 415, Alexandria), mathematician, astronomer and philosopher who lived during a very turbulent era in the history of Alexandria. She is the earliest mathematician whose life and work is known in considerable detail.
Hypatia was the daughter of Theon of Alexandria, himself a mathematician and astronomer and the last confirmed member of the Alexandria Museum (
Researcher’s Note: Hypatia’s date of birth). Theon is best remembered for the role he played in preserving Euclid
Book Of The Week: Philosopher Queens
. Hypatia continued his program, which was essentially a determined effort to preserve the Greek mathematical and astronomical heritage in extremely difficult times. It is credited to the comments of Apollonius of Perga
(number theory), as well as an astronomical table (probably a revised version of book III of her father’s commentary, Fr
). These works, the only ones she is said to have written, have been lost, although there have been attempts to reconstruct aspects of them. Commenting on Apollonius and Diophantus, she pushed the program started by her father into newer and more difficult areas.
Numbers and Math Quiz A-B-C, 1-2-3… If you think counting numbers is like reciting the alphabet, test your math fluency with this quiz.
Armarium Magnum: Hypatia And
She was the world’s leading mathematician and astronomer in her time, the only woman for whom such a claim can be made. She was also a popular teacher and lecturer on philosophical topics of a less specialist nature, attracting many loyal students and large audiences. Her philosophy was Neoplatonist and was therefore seen as “pagan” at a time of bitter religious conflict between Christians (both orthodox and “heretical”), Jews and pagans. Her Neoplatonism was concerned with access to the One, a fundamental reality partially accessible to the human power of abstraction from the Platonic forms, themselves abstractions from the world of everyday reality. Her philosophy also led her to embrace a life of consecrated innocence.
An early manifestation of the religious division of the time was the destruction of the Serapeum, the temple of the Greco-Egyptian god Serapis, by Theophilus, bishop of Alexandria until his death in 412. This event may have been the final end of the great Library of Alexandria, since the Serapeum may have contained some of the library’s books. Theophilus, however, was on friendly terms with Synesius, an ardent admirer and disciple of Hypatia, so that she herself was not affected by this development, but was allowed to continue her intellectual endeavors unhindered. However, with the deaths of Synesius and Theophilus and the arrival of Cyril to the Alexandrian diocese, this climate of tolerance disappeared, and shortly afterwards Hypatia fell victim to a particularly brutal murder by a gang of Christian zealots. It remains a matter of heated debate as to how much blame Cyril bears for this crime, but the affair made Hypatia a powerful feminist symbol and a figure of affirmation for intellectual endeavor in the face of ignorant prejudice. Her intellectual achievements alone were quite enough to merit the preservation and respect of her name, but unfortunately the manner of her death gave it even greater emphasis. Size of this preview: 800 × 452 pixels. Other resolutions: 320 × 181 pixels | 640 × 362 pixels | 1,024 × 579 pixels | 1, 280 × 724 pixels | 2, 560 × 1, 448 pixels | 3,998 × 2,261 pixels.
English: This is a photograph of the first page of the second of the two letters to Hypatia included in the first printed edition of Synesius’ works (edited and printed by Adrian Turnèbe in 1553). This photo was taken at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Archives.
Français : Photographie de la première page de la seconde des deux lettres à Hypatie includes dans la première édition imprimée des œuvres de Synesius (éditées et imprimées par Adrian Turnèbe of 1553). This photo is a prize aux Archives at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Hypatia Of Alexandria
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Printed for M. Cooper, in Pater-noster-Row; W. Reeve, in Fleet Street; and C. Sympson, in Chancery-lane. 1753. [Price 6d.]
General figure of a lady; The perpetrators and executioners of the barbarism she suffered; and the authorities from which this story is drawn.
File:letter Of Synesius To Hypatia B1.jpg
I will give a short account, but as full as the ancient books give us Materials of the life and death of Hypatia; who will ever continue the glory of her sex, and the shame of ours: for women have no less reason to esteem themselves, that there was a lady of such rare accomplishments, without the least blemish, even as a foil to her innumerable Perfections; but that men should be ashamed, that any should be found among them of so brutal and savage a disposition, that, far from being dazzled by so much beauty, innocence, and knowledge, as to stain their barbarous Hands with her blood, and their impious souls with indelible character sacrilegious killers. A bishop, a patriarch, nay, a saint, was the Creator of such a terrible deed, and his clergy the executioners of his implacable fury. The authors from whom I gather my account (and I omit none that have come to my knowledge) were either her contemporaries, or lived near that era. One of them was her schoolmate, the other her scholar. 4 But those who speak of the most abominable and incredible circumstances are the ecclesiastical historians; considered Orthodox in their time, as well as eminently more than the majority in ours. We should not forget that some of them were priests. To each of them we will do the justice which their sincerity or deceit deserves, though little remains to be done in that respect; all agree on the main facts, and some differ only on points of no great importance. They are such things, which, taken in any way, serve not much to mitigate a very bad Cause, nor to aggravate what cannot possibly be aggravated.
Alexandria, famous for learning and commerce, but especially for its school or academy, of which Theon, father of Hypatia, was master.
After Alexander the Great founded Alexandria in Egypt as the center of trade in the Empire he projected, the city soon became a flourishing mart for learning as well as commerce. The glory of the School of Alexandria and the Library of Alexandria extended far beyond the name of Alexander; or at least carried him where he could never have reached without their means. This was the most fitting tribute that could be paid in gratitude to the memory of a prince of such ambitious fame: as, indeed, no private persons, no more than sovereigns, will ever do anything praiseworthy without the prospect of long-lived 5 reputation, the most effectual inducement for praiseworthy and arduous endeavors. The legacy of the great men who presided over this school may be learned from the works of those who deliberately wrote on such subjects. However, my Design obliges me to mention one of them, namely Theon, who governed that Academy with much applause in the latter part of the fourth century. He was especially known for his extensive knowledge of astronomy, which is amply demonstrated by the catalogues, compiled by those who excelled in this science. But what contributed to make him more famous