Swiss River 3 Letters
Swiss River 3 Letters – The West Fork Gallatin River, left, flows into the main course of the Gallatin River on Nov. 10.
Several conservation groups are petitioning the state of Montana to declare the main Gallatin River water quality impaired, following a flood as a result of state leaders delaying the publication of a biennial Joint Report.
Swiss River 3 Letters
Several conservation groups are petitioning the state of Montana to divert the Gallatin River’s main source because of poor water quality, after state officials made a decision to delay the publication of a biennial report.
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The Upper Missouri Waterkeeper, the Gallatin River Task Force, Montana Trout Unlimited, the Greater Yellowstone Coalition and American Rivers filed the official request with the state on Thursday.
The groups are calling on the Montana Department of the Environment to designate the middle section of the Gallatin River as a Category 5 impaired drainage system.
Still blooming, the disaster has damaged the river’s effectiveness, they say, and includes “overwhelming evidence of abuse” under the leadership of the state agency.
Guy Alsentzer, executive director of Upper Missouri Waterkeeper, said the DEQ has an ongoing responsibility to evaluate the health of the waterways in a biannual report. As part of that report, the state has prepared a list of canals that do not meet high water quality standards.
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Weaknesses that do not meet the standards require a “total maximum daily load” design tool, which introduces a system to limit pollutants. This year, for the first time in 20 years, the state failed to publish the combined report, Alsentzer said.
In an email, DEQ staff wrote that the agency has been able to complete the Joint Report for the past two years, but this year, officials had to delay its publication until in 2024.
The agency said that it is in the process of hiring people for several vacancies that are important to the completion of the report. People in those positions do “the development and revision of key evaluation methods needed to complete the next report,” they wrote.
Kristin Gardner, executive director of the Gallatin River Task Force, said her organization has been working with the DEQ since 2018 to evaluate whether the Gallatin River should be listed as impaired water quality, and the agency wants to make a decision.
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“The sooner they do it, the sooner we can make plans to reduce the algal bloom in the future,” he said. “There are a lot of plans in the community that will benefit from them being organized sooner rather than later.”
Non-toxic algal blooms have appeared on the main stem of the Gallatin River every summer since 2018. Over time, frequent blooms can harm aquatic life in streams. and rivers.
High water and air temperatures, low river flow and sunlight can all stimulate algae growth, but nutrient loading, or accumulation is less common. of nitrates and phosphates in rivers and streams, making the water primarily for flowers.
The persistent neon-green blooms “destroy recreational facilities and harm fish populations and aquatic ecosystems by depleting oxygen,” Upper Missouri Waterkeeper wrote in a news release.
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The petitioners say the algal growth recorded in the Gallatin River is “substantial evidence of impairment” due to the existing data. showing filamentous algae covering the entire bottom of the river, from bank to bank and continuing down to 150 meters.
DEQ officials wrote that based on photos and videos provided to the department, the middle of the Gallatin River does not fall into the impaired category, according to the methodology language of evaluation.
“DEQ will conduct a thorough review of current data from DEQ and volunteer monitoring contractors, as well as photos and videos, nutrient analysis (nitrogen and phosphorus) water chemistry, benthic algal biomass … and data macroinvertebrate,” the agency wrote.
DEQ officials wrote that they are committed to ensuring the efficient use of Montana’s waterways, and that they expect to complete a feasibility study as requested in the application.
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Received: 29 July 2021 / Revised: 1 September 2021 / Accepted: 9 September 2021 / Published: 14 September 2021
The effects of large woody plants (LW) in rivers on river ecology and morphology have begun to be widely studied and today their environmental benefits are indisputable. However, LW is present in many channels in Switzerland which are not very good due to the influence of river ecosystems. The use of anchored LW structures, engineered under various conditions in river restoration projects is now the norm. However, there are no unified indicators for the natural representation within the LW domain and complex LW structures. Therefore, hydraulic engineers often find themselves in a conflict between the amount of LW acceptable for flood protection, amount required from an ecological point of view and, last but not least, amount accepted by the public based on the current concepts of landscape design. In the first part, this paper deals with the complexity of defining indicators for total LW in rehabilitation projects. In the second part, we provide a practical explanation on the relevant questions when designing LW engineering structures, such as placement, anchorage, nature, and effectiveness from the point of view of hydraulic engineering. The third section presents three examples of restoration projects of different sizes that have been constructed and incorporated into rivers. different engineering of different LW structures with different results. Finally, the conclusion suggests alternative measures to maintain LW in rivers and improve the natural LW capacity of rivers.
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Large boards; main trunk; log jam; anchor; river restoration; large-scale woodworking model simulations; main trunk; log jam; anchor; river restoration; basic model
Between the 18th and the middle of the 20th century, the rivers of the Swiss landscape were widely improved for the burial of agricultural land and increased flood protection. As a result, the disposal capacity was improved and the protection of banks was strengthened. At the same time, the amount of dead wood in Swiss forests (especially in silviculture areas) fell below the amount seen in ancient European forests due to increased deforestation . As a result, the normal use of large new or dead trees (diameter ≥10 cm and length ≥1 m based on Wohl and Jaeger (2009) , further referred to as LW), is reduced. Persistent LW logs in riverbeds act as important traps for small LW, forming complex and physically variable structures that affect the surrounding morphology. The instream LW is at the bottom of the aquatic food chain by providing food and habitat for various predators, as well as cover for fish.
In order to meet modern flood protection goals, different parts of Swiss rivers need additional protection. In addition, based on the 2011 renewal of the Federal Waters Protection Act, Swiss waters must be properly protected from harmful effects . For environmental reasons and to optimize federal funding, flood protection projects are often combined with natural disaster recovery measures. environment. These conditions lead to many river restoration projects that have been started and completed in Switzerland.
The effects of large wooden structures (LWS)