Swiss River 4 Letters
Swiss River 4 Letters – 47°22′57″N 8°32′18″E / 47.3826°N 8.5382°E / 47.3826; 8.5382 Coordinates: 47°22′57″N 8°32′18″E / 47.3826°N 8.5382°E / 47.3826; 8.5382
The Sihl is a Swiss river that rises near the Drusberg mountain in the canton of Switzerland and flows into the Limmat in the city of Zurich. Its length is 73 km (45 mi), including the Sihalsi Reservoir, through which the river flows. At Sihalsi, water is extracted from the river, which reduces the flow of water downstream and consequently reduces the water quality.
Swiss River 4 Letters
The river flows through or borders the cantons of Schwyz, Zurich and Zug. The main settlements in the Sihl Valley are all in the canton of Zurich, and include the towns of Langnau am Albis and Adliswil, along with the southwestern part of the city of Zurich. Above Langnau am Albis, about 13 km (8.1 mi) from its confluence with the Limmat, there are no major settlements along the river, and only a few small villages. While the town of Einsiedeln is located near Sihlsee, it is actually in the valley of a tributary river, the Alp.
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The name may be of Old European or Celtic origin: *Sîla (“quiet watercourse”, from root *sîl = “to trickle, wet”) > Romance sila with the addition of Old High German alemt aha “flowing water”.
The river rises on the north-eastern side of the Drusberg mountain, in the municipality of Unteriberg in the canton of Switzerland, and flows north through the village of Stud. About 2 km (1.2 mi) downstream of the stud, the river tares the artificial Sihlsee Reservoir to its south. Nearby, the Münster also flows into the Sihlsee, and was a direct tributary of the Sihl prior to the construction of the reservoir. The Eubach, Ricktalbach and Grossbach tributaries also flow into the Sihl through the Sihlsee.
Sihlsee is about 8.5 km (5.3 mi) long, and is located near the town of Einsiedeln. It is the largest artificial lake in Switzerland and is surrounded by a 33-metre (108 ft) high dam. Water from the Sihlsee is diverted into Lake Zurich at Altdorf, with a water level of 406, by the Etzelwerk hydroelectric power station with a water surface elevation of 889 meters (2,917 ft) to generate electricity. meters (1, 332 feet). This has reduced water flow downstream of the dam, negatively impacting water quality and drying up the river during winter low flow conditions.
Below the dam, the Sihl tares a narrow glacial valley and proceeds in an easterly direction, receiving the waters of its tributary Alp, briefly tarring the canton of Zurich near the village of Hutt. The river Me continues as the border between the cantons of Zug and Zurich, passing through the Sihlsprung rapids along the way. In the village of Sihlbrugg, the river crosses the canton of Zurich for the second and final time. North of Sihlbrugg, the river flows through a lightly populated and heavily forested valley, with a main road and railway line along it. The Sihlwald Forest, a large-scale and rare example of native forest, lies on the slopes of the Albis that rise westward from the river. At this point, Lake Zurich lies just 2 km (1.2 mi) to the east, but is separated from the river by the Zimmerberg Mountains.
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Reaching the town of Langnau m Albis on the west bank of the river and the village of Gatikon on the east bank, the valley becomes more populated and industrialized, with industry originally attracted by the available water power. From here the valley floor is continuous from the city of Adliswil to the city limits of Zurich. Once in the city, the river flows through the districts of Leimbach, Wallischof, Freisburg, Alt-Vidikon and GE before reaching the city’s CTA. In this stretch the river is crossed by several bridges, and for 1.2 km (0.75 mi) the A3 motorway passes along and over the river on a viaduct.
Closer to the city, the SZU railway line runs along and under the river in a tunnel. An entrance to the Selnau station on that line is built in the form of an artificial island within the river. Downstream from here, the Schanzgrabe motte, fed from Lake Zürich and formerly protecting the western perimeter of the Altstadt, flows into the Siehl before flowing beneath the Zürich Hauptbahnhof railway station. The station has platforms on two levels, and the river actually tunnels under the upper levels, but above the lower levels, in 5 culverts with a width of 190 meters (623 ft) and 3 meters (10 ft) with a clear opening of 12 meters (39 ft). . Shortly after passing under the station, the Sihl joins the Limmat at the top of Platzspitz Park.
The river flows through the Sihlsee about 50 kilometers (31 mi) upstream of the city of Zurich, and studies have shown that a dam failure could lead to an 8-metre (26 ft) high flood wave in the city within 2 hours. This threat is exacerbated by the fact that the river passes through Zurich Hauptbahnhof station in a tunnel that limits the river’s flow capacity, raising concerns about the tunnel’s ability to withstand extreme flood conditions. The threat has led the city of Zurich to develop, publish and test evacuation plans for affected areas of the city. Stormwater Detention Ponds in Urban Catchments-Analysis and Validation of the Performance of Ponds in the Oseburn Catchment, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
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Received: 29 July 2021 / Revised: 1 September 2021 / Accepted: 9 September 2021 / Published: 14 September 2021
The effects of the presence of large wood (LW) in streams on river ecology and morphology have been widely researched and nowadays their ecological benefits are undeniable. Yet the presence of LW in most Swiss plateau streams is weak mainly due to anthropogenic pressures on riverine ecosystems. The use of anchored, engineered LW structures under various forms is now advanced in stream restoration projects. However, binding benchmarks for equivalent naturally occurring instream LW quantities and complex LW structures do not yet exist. Therefore, hydraulic engineers often find themselves in conflict between acceptable instream LW quantities for flood protection, ecologically desirable quantities, and quantities accepted by the public based on current ideologies of landscape design. In the first section, this paper considers the complexity of determining criteria for LW quantities in restoration projects. In the second section, we provide qualitative practical insight into questions relevant when planning engineered LW structures, such as placement, anchoring, naturalness and effectiveness from a hydraulic engineer’s point of view. The third part presents three examples of restoration projects with different parameters where different engineered LW structures were constructed and introduced into active streams with different results. Finally, the conclusion provides further potential steps to maintain LW in streams and restore more natural LW dynamics in rivers.
Big wood; key log; log jam; anchoring; river restoration; Practice-Based Experiences Big Wood; key log; log jam; anchoring; river restoration; Practice based experiences
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Between the 18th and mid-20th centuries, Swiss plateau streams were extensively modified to reclaim agricultural land and enhance flood protection. As a result, in-channel discharge capacity was increased and bank security was strengthened. At the same time the amount of dead wood in Swiss forests (especially in silviculture areas) fell far below the observed amount.