1001 Letters For All Occasions Pdf Free
1001 Letters For All Occasions Pdf Free – 1001 business letters for every occasion, from inter-office memos and employee evaluations to company policies and business invitations – templates for every situation
We live in a world of instant and constant communication, but business still requires us to choose our words carefully and express ourselves clearly. Whether you’re sending a quick instant message or a formal proposal, 1001 Business Letters for All Events ensures you get your message across effectively.
1001 Letters For All Occasions Pdf Free
Whether you’re communicating with internal staff or dealing with clients and customers, it’s never been easier to write the perfect business letter.
Effects Of Infusion Time And Addition Of Milk On Content And Absorption Of Polyphenols From Black Tea
Considered one of the pioneers of computer journalism, Corey Sandler was the first executive editor of PC Magazine and co-founded several other national publications. He has written over 200 books on computer, business, history, sports and travel.
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By Anushika L. De Silva 1, Wiebke Kämper 1, Helen M. Wallace 1, Steven M. Ogbourne 2, 3, Shahla Hosseini Bai 1, Joel Nichols 1, and Stephen J. Trueman 1, *
Center for Planetary Health and Food Security, Griffith University School of Environment and Science, Nathan, QLD 4111, Australia
Received: February 10, 2022 / Revised: March 7, 2022 / Accepted: March 8, 2022 / Published: March 11, 2022
The yield and fruit quality of many tree crops are suboptimal due to insufficient pollination, low fertilization and poor crop nutrition. Boron (B) is a critical nutrient for fruit set because B levels affect pollen germination and pollen tube growth. However, the relationship between flower B concentration and fruit set is not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of B applications on initial fruit set, yield, quality and paternity of macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia). Cultivar “816” trees received one of three treatments before flowering: (a) 0 g, (b) 15 g, or (c) 30 g of B per tree. Boron application increased the concentration of B in macadamia flowers. Addition of 15 g B increased fruit set 3 weeks after peak anthesis, but this larger initial fruit set did not translate into greater fruiting at 6 or 10 weeks after peak or higher yield. Boron application increased the concentration of B in kernels, but did not affect nut-in-shell (NIS) weight, kernel weight, kernel recovery, kernel oil concentration, or the incidence of intact kernels. Cultivar ‘816’ was highly outcrossed, with 97–98% of kernels obtained from all treatments. Our results indicate that higher B concentration in macadamia flowers may be associated with increased initial fruit set. However, the high level of B did not affect yield, nut quality, or the proportion of self-pollinated fruits at maturity. The high reliance on cross-breeding emphasizes the importance of planting different cultivars and managing bee hives to maintain productivity in macadamia orchards.
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Crop nutrition; kernel; Macadamia integrifolia; a nut; pollination; Proteaceae; self unsuitability; self-sterility crop nutrition; kernel; Macadamia integrifolia; a nut; pollination; Proteaceae; self-incompatibility; self-sterility
Global crop yields are currently below expected food demand [1, 2]. Fruits contribute over 600 million tons of the global 10,600 million tons of annual food production [ 3 , 4 , 5 ], and fruit number and size are key components of tree yield [ 6 , 7 , 8 ]. Tree yield can be limited by the percentage of pollinated and fertilized flowers, the percentage of fruits that develop to maturity, and the mass of fruit components contributing to yield [9, 10, 11, 12]. Mass-flowering trees, which include many tropical and subtropical cultures of the world, usually produce many more flowers than mature fruits [ 9 , 13 , 14 , 15 ]. Many flowers do not bear fruit, and many fruits abscise early in fruit development [9, 14, 16, 17, 18]. The final size of remaining fruits can be influenced by environmental conditions [19, 20], crop nutrition [21, 22, 23] and fruit paternity [15, 24, 25, 26, 27].
Macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia, M. tetraphylla and hybrids) is a subtropical nut crop that produces up to 3500 racemes per tree per year [28, 29, 30]. Each raceme has 100–300 flowers [15, 31]. Low and uneven yields of macadamia are often associated with low initial set, poor fruit retention, and differences in nut and kernel size [ 15 , 17 , 27 , 32 , 33 , 34 , 35 ]. The fruit-to-flower ratio of macadamia is very low [17, 33], which is common among species of the Proteaceae family [9, 36, 37]. Typically, less than 2% of macadamia flowers develop into mature fruits [15, 16, 32, 33, 38]. Most macadamia cultivars are partially self-incompatible, with higher pollen tube growth and higher fruit set after cross-pollination with a different cultivar than after self-pollination with the same cultivar [ 35 , 39 , 40 , 41 , 42 ]. . A larger initial fruit set following additional cross-pollination of macadamia flowers is often translated into a higher final fruit yield [17, 33]. Additional cross-pollination of individual racemes also increases nut-in-shell (NIS) weight by 11.6–21.8%, kernel weight by 18.4–31.3%, and kernel recovery (i.e., percentage of NIS by kernel weight). by 1.5–3.3% [17, 33]. Supplemental cross-pollination of healthy trees can also increase NIS yield by 29–97%, kernel yield by 29–109%, and kernel oil concentration by 0.5% [ 15 ]. Therefore, suboptimal macadamia yield and nut quality have been associated with insufficient pollinator activity and an undersupply of cruciferous pollen [ 15 , 34 , 35 , 43 ]. However, plant nutrition may also play an important role in macadamia fruit collection and preservation [44, 45].
Boron (B) is an important plant trace element with multiple functions in pollination and fruit formation [46, 47, 48]. Both male and female reproductive tissues have a higher demand for B than vegetative tissues [ 49 , 50 , 51 ]. Inadequate B levels affect microsporogenesis, resulting in reduced pollen production, pollen size and viability [ 52 , 53 ]. Boron also promotes pollen germination and pollen tube growth [ 54 , 55 , 56 ], while B deficiency reduces the flexibility of pollen tube cell walls and can inhibit pollen tube growth [ 56 , 57 , 58 ]. Borate cross-linked pectin is the main component of the female reproductive tissue that guides the pollen tubes to the ovules . Inadequate B levels can lead to impaired development of the transferable tissue, which prevents fertilization . Increasing B concentration in flowers increases initial fruiting ability, fruit retention, final fruiting ability, or yield of many tree crops, including almond (Prunus dulcis), apple (Malus domestica), avocado (Persea americana), olive (Olea europaea), and sour cherry. (Prunus cerasus) [14, 59, 60, 61, 62]. However, the relationship between flower B concentration and macadamia fruit is not well understood.
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The objective of this study was to determine the effect of B applications on initial fruit set, yield, quality and paternity of macadamia fruit. We hypothesized that B application would increase initial fruit set and yield, possibly by increasing the number of self-pollinated flowers that developed into fruit. Thus, we expected that application B would increase the proportion of self-pollinated fruits at harvest. We also hypothesized that B application would affect NIS mass, kernel mass, and kernel quality due to changes in the proportions of self-pollinated and cross-pollinated fruits.
The study was conducted in