Bird Of Myth 3 Letters
Bird Of Myth 3 Letters – The African sacred ibis (Threskiornis aethiopicus) is a species of ibis, a wading bird in the Threskiornithidae family. It is native to much of Africa, as well as small parts of Iraq, Iran and Kuwait.
It is especially known for its role in the religion of the ancient Egyptians, where it was linked to the god Thoth. The species is extinct in Egypt.
Bird Of Myth 3 Letters
It is closely related to the black-headed ibis and the Australian white ibis, with which it forms a superspecies complex, so much so that the three species are considered conspecific by some ornithologists.
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Although the ancient civilizations of Greece, Rome and especially Africa, the ibis was familiar to Western Europeans from the fall of Rome until the 19th century, and the motion of this bird in the ancient works of these civilizations was supposed to be described some kind of color. or other birds, and were translated as such.
In 1758, Linnaeus was convinced that earlier authors had described a cow egret (Bubulcus ibis), which he thus described as Ardea ibis.
Following the work of Mathurin Jacques Brisson, who called it Ibis candida in 1760, in the 12th edition of his Systema Naturae in 1766 Linnaeus classified it as Tantalus ibis.
These were also familiar birds that did not reach Europe at the time, in the glish of those times called the ‘Egyptian ibis’ by Latham, and ’emseesy’ or ‘cow bird’ by George Shaw.
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In 1790, John Latham gave the first unambiguous modern scientific description of the sacred ibis as Tantalus aethiopicus, telling James Bruce of Kinnaird who called it ‘abou hannes’ in his writings describing his travels in the Sudan and Ethiopia, and he also described Tantalus melanocephalus from India. .
In 1842, George Robert Gray reclassified the bird under the new genus Threskiornis, because the type of Tantalus gus was designated as wood stork, also formerly called wood ibis or wood pelican, and Gray decided that these birds could not. classified in the same gus.
In a comprehensive review of plumage patterns by Holyoak in 1970, he noted that the three taxa were very similar and that the Australian birds resembled Threskiornis aethiopicus in adult plumage and T. melanocephalus in juvenile plumage, he proposed that they all be considered a part of. one species T. aethiopicus. At that time was generally accepted by the scientific community, however in ‘The Birds of the Western Palearctic’ condition in 1977, Roselaar defended dividing the group into 4 species, recognizing T. bernieri, based again on th known differences geographic morphologies.
In 1990, Sibley & Monroe, in the general reference ‘Distribution and Taxonomy of Birds of the World’ followed Roselaar in recognizing four species, which they repeated in ‘A World Checklist of Birds’ in 1993.
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This taxon being separated from T. melanocephalus and T. molucca was further supported by another morphological study by Lowe and Richards in 1991, where, like Holyoak, they again looked at plumage but used more skin, but in contrast and he concluded that the differences were. these deserve separate species status for the three taxa, especially since no intergradation of morphological characters could be found in the possible contact zone in SE Asia. They also cite alleged differences in courtship displays between Australian and Asian birds. Based on these characteristics, it is recommended that the Malagasy bird be considered a subspecies of T. aethiopicus.
In 2003, Birdlife International chose to adopt the narrow taxonomic concept as advocated by Sibley & Monroe 1993.
An adult is 68 cm (27 in) long with all body plumage white apart from black feathers on the back. Wingspan is 112 to 124 cm (44 to 49 in) and body weight 1.35 to 1.5 kg (3.0 to 3.3 lb).
The bald head and neck, thick curved bill and black legs. The white wings show a black rear border in flight. The eyes are brown with a dark red orbital ring.
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The sexes are similar, but juviles have dirty white plumage, a smaller beak and some feathers on the neck, gray-brown scapular and more black on the main coverts.
This bird is usually silent, but occasionally makes noises similar to the yelping of dogs, unlike its vocal relative, the Hadada ibis.
The sacred ibis breeds in sub-Saharan Africa and southeastern Iraq. A number of populations migrate with the rains; some of the southern African birds migrate 1,500 km as far north as Zambia, the African birds north of the equator migrate in the opposite direction. The Iraqi population usually migrates to southwestern Iran, but wandering vagrants have been seen as far south as Oman (rare, but regular) and as far north as the Caspian coast of Kazakhstan and Russia (before 1945).
It was found anciently in North Africa including Egypt, where it was often carved and mummified as a votive offering to the god Thoth. For centuries until the Roman period, the main temples buried some twelve thousand birds a year, and to maintain sufficient numbers for the sacrificial demands of pilgrims from all over Egypt, it was long believed that ibis breeding farms (the called ibis breeding farm). ibiotropheia by Herodotus) existed.
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Strabo, writing around 20 AD, reported large numbers of birds in the streets of Alexandria, where he lived at the time; collect from the garbage, attack supplies, and defile everything with the manure.
Pierre Belon noted many ibises in Egypt during his travels there in the late 1540s (he thought they were an odd type of stork).
Boît de Maillet, in his Description de l’Egypte (1735), relates that at the end of the 17th century, when great caravans traveled annually to Mecca, great clouds of ibises followed them out of Egypt for more than a hundred leagues in the desert to feed the manure left in the camps.
In 1850, however, the species disappeared in Egypt both as a breeding and migrant population, with the last, albeit doubtful, sighting in 1864.
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An examination of genetic diversity among mummified ibises suggested that there was no reduction in genetic diversity as would have been caused if they had been bred in captivity and further isotope studies suggested that the birds were not only wild-caught but came from a wide geographic range.
This species did not breed in southern Africa before the beginning of the 20th century, but it was valued in irrigation, dams, and commercial agricultural practices such as manure piles, carcasses, and shelters. It began to breed at the beginning of the 20th century, and in the 1970s the first ibis colonies were recorded in Zimbabwe and South Africa. For example, its population expanded 2-3 times during the period between 1972 and 1995 in the Orange Free State. It is now found throughout southern Africa.
The species is a common resident in most parts of South Africa. Local numbers swell in summer by people migrating south from the equator.
Elsewhere in Africa it occurs in all continents south of the Sahara, but it is largely abst in the deserts of southwest Africa (ie the Namib, the Karoo, the Kalahari) and probably the Congo rainforest. In West Africa it is fairly uncommon across the Sahel, except for large flood systems. It can often be found breeding on the Niger, in the Inner Niger Delta in Mali, Logone in C.A.R., Lac Fitri in Chad, Saloum Delta in Segal, and other localities in relatively small numbers such as in Gambia. It is common throughout East Africa and Southern Africa. Large numbers can be found in the Sudd swamps and Lake Kundi in Sudan in the dry season. It is fairly widespread on the upper Nile, and is quite common around Mogadishu, Somalia. In Tanzania there are a number of sites with 500 to 1,000+ birds, totaling some 20,000 birds.
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The bird is also native to Yem; in 2003 it bred in large numbers on small islands near Haramous and on the Red Sea coast near Hodeidah and Ad, where it was often found in wastewater treatment plants. It was recorded nesting on a shipwreck in the Red Sea.
With the Yem Civil War and famine, there are no new Csus reports on the species of Yem,
The species was fairly common in Iraq in the first half of the 20th century, but at the end of the 1960s it became very rare, and the population was thought to number no more than 200 birds. The population was thought to have suffered greatly during the drainage of the Mesopotamian Marrakesh in southeastern Iraq that began in the late 1980s, and was feared to have become extinct, but it has been observed breeding in a colony in the Hawizeh Marshes ( part of the Hawizeh Marshes). Mesopotamian Marshes) as of 2008, which counts up to 27 adults.
It is also native to Kuwait, where it arrives as a very rare migrant, with only two sightings, the last being a flock of 17 in 2007.
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There are no records of the bird in Iran before the 1970s, however small numbers were found wintering in Khuzestan in 1970. Since the 1990s the numbers seem to have slowly increased to some extent.
The first sacred African ibis was brought in