Chemical Suffix 3 Letters

Chemical Suffix 3 Letters – In earlier times, the conventional names of organic compounds were mainly derived from their source of occurrence and properties. However, organic chemists recognized the need for systematic naming of organic compounds, as many organic compounds were synthesized in due course. This leads to the establishment of the nomenclature system of the “International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, IUPAC”.

The IUPAC nomenclature system is a set of logical rules whose main purpose is to unambiguously name an organic compound. Using this system, it is possible to give a systematic IUPAC name to an organic compound based on its structure alone, and we can also write the structure of the organic compound by following the IUPAC name of the given compound.

Chemical Suffix 3 Letters

Chemical Suffix 3 Letters

I have logically introduced the IUPAC nomenclature on this page. They follow a concise and uniform approach to help assign IUPAC names to almost all types of compounds. This is not an exhaustive reference to IUPAC nomenclature. However, it is more than enough for all students at different levels of the learning curve.

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The suffix is ​​again divided into primary and secondary. Therefore, the full systematic IUPAC name can be represented as:

The root of the IUPAC name indicates the number of carbon atoms in the longest possible continuous carbon chain selected by the rules, also known as the parent chain. The used root words with different carbon chain lengths (up to 20) are shown below.

It is used to indicate the degree of saturation or unsaturation of the main chain. It is added immediately after the root of the IUPAC name.

It is used to indicate the main functional group of the organic compound and is added immediately after 1

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Note: If there are two or more functional groups in a compound, the higher priority functional group should be selected as the main functional group, which should be denoted by a secondary suffix. The other, lower priority functional groups are treated as substituents and denoted by prefixes.

The suffixes, as well as the prefixes used for some important functional groups, are presented in the following table, in descending order of their priority.

Note also that a different suffix is ​​used if the carbon atom of the functional group is not part of the main chain.

Chemical Suffix 3 Letters

The prefix is ​​used to indicate side chains, substituents, and functional groups of low priority (which are substituents). The prefix may precede the root of the word or the infix of the IUPAC name.

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Chemical Nomenclature And Chemical Formulas

The prefixes used for some common side chains and substituents are shown below. (the prefixes of the functional groups are already specified)

Note that alkyl groups enjoy the same benefit as halogen, nitro, and alkoxy groups. They have a lower priority than double and triple bonds.

Infixes such as cyclo, spiro, bicyclo are placed between the prefix(es) and the root word in the IUPAC name to indicate the nature of the parent chain.

1) The first step in entering the IUPAC name of an organic compound is to select the parent chain and assign a word root.

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2) The appropriate primary suffix(es) is then added to the root word to indicate saturation or unsaturation.

3) If the molecule contains a functional group or groups, a secondary suffix is ​​added to indicate the main functional group. This is optional and not necessary if the molecule does not contain a functional group.

4) If the parent chain is cyclic, insert the infix “cyclo” before the base word; or with the bracket “spiro” if it is a spiro compound; or with the parentheses “bicyclo” if the compound is bicyclic.

Chemical Suffix 3 Letters

5) Finally, add prefix(es) to the IUPAC name if there are side chains or substituents on the parent chain.

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Will you learn how to choose a parentage chain?; how can the carbon atoms be numbered and the locants for the functional groups and side chains specified? etc., in the next section.

The first step in naming an organic compound is to select the parent chain and enter the root word based on the number of carbon atoms in it.

In an organic molecule, the parent chain is the longest continuous carbon chain that contains as many functional groups, double bonds, triple bonds, side chains and substituents as possible.

I) The longest chain in the following molecule has 6 carbon atoms. Hence the root of the word is “hex-“. Note that the parentage chain cannot be straight.

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The shaded part shows the longest chain, which contains 7 carbon atoms. Also see the alternative way of writing the molecule, in which the ethyl groups are expanded to -CH

However, the chain containing more substituents (the one shown in the following diagram with 3 substituents) should be considered the parent chain. Thus, “hept” appears as a root in the IUPAC name of this compound.

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Iv) Double bonds and triple bonds are given higher priority than alkyl side chains and some other substituents like halogen, nitro, alkoxy etc. Therefore, if there are two or more chains containing the same number of carbon atoms, the chain containing a double or triple A bond is selected as the starting chain, regardless of whether the other chains contain more substituents.

Chemical Suffix 3 Letters

There are two 6-carbon chains. But a chain with a double bond shown in (II) should be selected as the parent chain.

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V) However, the longest chain should be selected as the parent chain, regardless of whether it contains multiple bonds or not.

For example. In the next molecule, the longest (shaded) chain contains no double bonds. This should be chosen as the parent chain, as it contains more carbon atoms (7) than the one containing the double bond (only 6 carbon atoms).

Vi) The chain containing the main functional group should be selected as the parent chain, even if it contains fewer carbon atoms than any other chain not containing the main functional group.

A functional group overrides all of the above rules as it takes higher priority than double bonds, triple bonds, side chains, and other substituents.

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For example. The 6-carbon chain (shaded) containing the -OH functional group must be selected as the parent chain, regardless of whether there is another 7-carbon chain that does not contain a functional group.

I) The positions of double bonds or triple bonds or substituents, side chains or functional groups on the backbone must be indicated by appropriate numbers (or locants). Locants are assigned to them by numbering the carbon atoms of the parent chain.

Although two different positioning sequences are possible by numbering the carbon chain from both sides, the correct sequence is selected by following the first point of difference rule described below.

Chemical Suffix 3 Letters

If we compare sequences of locants with the same number of members member by member, the sequence that contains the smallest number at the time of the first deviation is preferred.

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For example, in the following molecule, the numbering can be done from both sides of the chain to give two sets of locants. However, we chose 2, 7, 8 because it has the lowest number, i.e. 2, when it is first different from the other set: 3, 4, 9.

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In fact, the so-called “Least Sum Rule” is a special case of the “First Difference Point Rule” above. Although it seems simple, the least sum rule only applies to chains with two substituents, which is a special case. However, using the Least Sum Rule is not advisable when there are more than two substituents, as it may violate the actual rule of the first point of difference.

Ii) If two or more side chains are in equivalent positions, the lower number that appears first in the name should be assigned.

In the case of simple roots, the group to be cited first in the name is determined by the alphabetical order of the first letter in the case of simple roots. When choosing the order of the alphabet, the prefixes di, tri, tetra should not be taken into account.

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In the next molecule, 4-ethyl-5-methyloctane, both the methyl and ethyl groups are in equivalent positions. However, the ethyl group is first in alphabetical order. Therefore, it is necessary to write in the name first and give it the lowest number.

Note: Sec-butyl and tert-butyl groups are arranged alphabetically under “b”. However, the isobutyl and isopropyl groups are listed under “i” and not under “b” or “p”.

Iii) However, if two or more groups are not in equivalent positions, the first group in alphabetical order may not be given the least number.

Chemical Suffix 3 Letters

For example. In the next molecule, 5-ethyl-2-methylheptane, the methyl and ethyl groups are not in equivalent positions. The methyl group receives the least number according to the rule of the first point of difference.

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Iv) Multiple bonds (double or triple bonds) have higher priority than alkyl or halogen or nitro or alkoxy groups and should therefore be given a lower number.

For example. In the next hydrocarbon, 6-methylhept-3-ene, the double bond is shown with the lower number and is denoted by the primary suffix 3-ene. The position of the methyl group is indicated by locus 6.

V) The double bond is preferred over the triple bond as it must be cited first in the name.

Hence the double bond

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Halo, Saya adalah penulis artikel dengan judul Chemical Suffix 3 Letters yang dipublish pada October 6, 2022 di website Caipm

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