Country In Se Asia 8 Letters
Country In Se Asia 8 Letters – The Linguistic Area of Mainland Southeast Asia is a conglomerate including languages of the Sino-Tibetan, Hmong-My (or Miao-Yao), Kra-Dai, Austronesian, and Austroasiatic families spoken in an area stretching from Thailand to China.
Neighboring languages in these families, although assumed to be unrelated, often have similar typological features, which are believed to have spread by diffusion.
Country In Se Asia 8 Letters
James Mattisoff referred to this area as the “Sinosphere”, in contrast to the “Indosphere”, but saw it as a zone of mutual influence in the ancient period.
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Austroasiatic languages include Vietnamese and Khmer, as well as many other languages spoken in scattered pockets as far away as Malaya and eastern India. Most linguists believe that the Austroasiatic languages once moved continuously across Southeast Asia and that their scattered distribution today is the result of the subsequent migration of speakers of other language groups from southern China.
Chinese civilization and the Chinese language spread from their home in the North China Plain in the Yangtze Valley and into southern China during the first millennium BCE. and the first millennium AD. The indigenous groups in these areas either became Chinese, retreated into the hill country, or migrated south. Thus, the Kra Dai languages, today including Thai, Lao, and Shan, were originally spoken in what is now southern China, where the greatest diversity of the family is still found, and perhaps as far north as the Yangtze Valley. With the exception of Zhuang, most of the Kra Dai languages still remaining in China are spoken in isolated mountainous areas.
Similarly, the Hmong-My languages may have been originally spoken in the middle Yangtze. Today they are scattered throughout the isolated hilly regions of southern China. Many of them migrated to Southeast Asia in the 18th and 19th centuries, following the suppression of a series of rebellions in Guizhou.
The highland regions in the interior of the area, as well as the plains of Burma, are home to speakers of another Sino-Tibetan language, the Tibeto-Burman languages. The Austronesian languages, spoken across the Pacific and Indian Oceans, are represented in MSEA by the disjunct Chamic group.
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The Far South Sinitic languages Cantonese and Pinghua are also part of the mainland Southeast Asian linguistic area, as Hilario de Sousa (2015) has shown.
Notes that the Tani languages of Arunachal Pradesh, northeast India fit typologically into the linguistic area of continental Southeast Asia, which typically has creoloid morphosyntactic patterns,
Rather than with the languages of the Tibetosphere. Post (2015) also notes that the Thani culture is similar to the culture of the hill tribes of mainland Southeast Asia and is not particularly adapted to the cold mountain vironmes.
Considers the mainland Southeast Asian language area to be part of the larger Mekong-Mamberamo linguistic area, which also includes languages in Indonesia west of the Mamberamo River.
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MSEA languages are characterized by a particular syllable structure that includes monosyllabic morphemes, lexical tone, a fairly large inventory of consonants, including phonemic aspiration, limited syllable-initial clusters, and numerous vowel contrasts. Final consonants are usually very limited, often limited to glides and nasals or unvoiced stops at the same points of articulation, without clusters and regardless of voicing. Languages in the northern part of the area tend to have fewer vowel and final contrasts, but more initial contrasts.
Some polysyllabic morphemes exist in Old Chinese and Vietnamese, often borrowed from other languages. A related syllable structure found in some languages, such as the Mon-Khmer languages, is the sesquisyl (from Latin: sesqui- meaning “one and a half”), which consists of a stressed syllable of roughly the above structure, to which preceded by an unstressed “small” syllable consisting only of a consonant and a neutral vowel /ə/.
That structure is persistent in many conservative Mon-Khmer languages such as Khmer (Cambodian) as well as Burmese, and has been reconstructed for older stages in a number of Sino-Tibetan languages.
Phonemic tone is one of the most well-known linguistic features of Southeast Asia. Many of the languages in the area have remarkably similar tone systems, which seem to have developed in the same way.
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The tone systems of Middle Chinese, Proto-Hmong-My, Proto-Thai, and Early Vietnamese all display a three-way tonal contrast in syllables lacking stops. In traditional analyses, stop-voiced syllables are treated as fourth or “check tone” because their distribution parallels that of nasal coda syllables. Moreover, the earliest layers of loanwords show a regular correspondence between the tonal categories of different languages:
Thus, Roman dictionaries such as the Qieyun divide the tone level into two volumes while covering each of the other tones in one volume. Vietnamese has a different distribution, with tone B four times more common than tone C.
Tone has long been believed to be an invariant feature of languages, suggesting that these groups must be related. However, this category includes groups of languages with a common core vocabulary. In 1954, André-Georges Hodricourt resolved this paradox by demonstrating that Vietnamese tones correspond to certain final consonants in other (atonal) Austroasiatic languages. Thus, he argued that the Austroasiatic proto-language was atonal and that its development into Vietnamese was conditioned by these consonants, which later disappeared, a process now known as tongenesis. Haudricourt further suggested that the tone of other languages had a similar origin. Since then, other scholars have discovered transcriptional and other evidence for these consonants in early forms of Chinese, and many linguists now believe that Old Chinese was atonal.
Additionally, because the realization of tone categories as tone contours varies so much between languages, the correspondence observed in early loans suggests that conditioning consonants were still constant at the time of borrowing.
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A characteristic sound change (phonemic split) occurred in most Southeast Asian languages around 1000 AD. First, syllables with pronounced initial consonants began to be pronounced with a lower pitch than those with unvoiced initials. In most of these languages, with a few exceptions such as Wu Chinese, the voice distinction subsequently disappeared and the pitch contour became distinctive. In tonal languages, each of the tones is divided into two “registers”, giving a typical pattern of six tones in unmarked syllables and two in marked ones.
Pinghua and Yue Chinese, as well as neighboring Tai languages, have additional tones in checked syllables, while many other Chinese varieties, including Mandarin Chinese, have merged some tone categories.
Instead, many non-tonal languages have developed a register split, with voiced consonants producing breathy vowels and voiceless consonants producing normally voiced vowels. Often, breathy vowels subsequently undergo additional, complex changes (eg diphthongization). Examples of languages affected in this way are Mon and Khmer (Cambodian). The breathy voice has since been lost in Standard Khmer, although the vowel changes caused by it still remain.
Many of these languages subsequently developed some voice impediments. The most common such sounds are /b/ and /d/ (often pronounced with some implosion), which derive from the former preglottalized /ʔb/ and /ʔd/, which were common phonemes in many Asian languages and which behaved like voiceless obstruents. In addition, the Vietnamese developed voiced fricatives through a different process (specifically, in two-syllable words with an initial, unstressed minor syllable, the medial stop at the beginning of the stressed major syllable became a voiced fricative, and the minor syllable was lost).
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Most MSEA languages are of the isolation type, with mostly monomorphemic words, no inflection and little affixation. Nouns are derived by compounding; for example, Mandarin Chinese is rich in polysyllabic words. Grammatical relationships are usually signaled by word order, particles, and prepositions or prepositions. Modality is expressed using stce-final particles. The usual word order in MSEA languages is subject-verb-object. Chinese, Bai and Kar are thought to have changed to this order from the subject-object-verb order retained by most other Sino-Tibetan languages. The order of constituents in a noun phrase varies: noun-modifier order is common in Thai and Hmong languages, while in Chinese varieties and Mii languages most modifiers are placed before the noun.
The Bengali language of western Southeast Asia also has numerical classifiers, although it is an Indo-European language that does not share the other features of MSEA. Bhagali also lacks gder, unlike most Indo-European languages. Central Asia is a harsh, arid region historically coveted for its position between Europe and East Asia on the legendary Silk Road rather than for its resources, although oil, natural gas and mineral reserves have become more important in modern times.
The region has no exact boundaries, but is usually considered to include all the landlocked “-flats” listed below. All but Afghanistan, (which is sometimes categorized separately) are former Soviet republics, most of which have so far retained authoritarian, secular governments. They are home to generally poor, primarily Muslim peoples, who mostly speak various Turkic languages. Several peoples were historically nomadic.
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