Letters Written In Sweden Norway And Denmark Summary
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Letters Written In Sweden Norway And Denmark Summary
Germanic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family. Researchers often divide the Germanic languages into three groups: West Germanic, including English, German, and Dutch (Dutch); North Germanic, including Danish, Swedish, Icelandic, Norwegian and Faroese; and East Germanic, now extinct, comprising only Gothic and the languages of the Vandals, the Burgundians and a few other tribes.
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In the number of speakers of the English language, with 450 million, in third place among the languages of the world (after Mandarin and Spanish); German, with about 98 million, is probably in tenth place (after Hindi, Bengali, Arabic, Portuguese, Russian and Japanese). To these figures may be added those of persons of another mother tongue who have learned one of the German languages for commercial, scientific, literary or other purposes. English is undoubtedly the second most widely spoken language in the world.
The earliest historical evidence for Germanic is provided by individual words and names recorded by Latin authors beginning in the 1st century BC. From about 200 AD there are inscriptions carved in the 24-letter runic alphabet. The earliest extensive Germanic text is the Gothic (incomplete) Bible, translated about AD 350 by the Visigothic bishop Ulfilas (Wulfila) and written in a 27-letter alphabet of the translator’s own design. Later versions of the runic alphabet were used sparingly in England and Germany, but more widely in Scandinavia – in the late to early modern period However, all extensive late Germanic texts use adaptations of the Latin alphabet.
Word Nerd Quiz If you live for word associations, derivations and definitions then you’re going to love this quiz! Earliest recorded Germanic languages Approximate dates AD *Standard cut-off date for the beginnings of modern Germanic languages. Early Runic 200–600 Gothic 350 Old English (Anglo-Saxon) 700–1050 Old High German 750–1050 Old Sax (Old Low German) 850–1050 Old Norse 1150–1450 Old Icelandic 1150–1500–1510* 1070 Middle* Danish Ancient 1250–1500* Ancient Swedish 1250–1500* Ancient Frisian 1300–1500*
The Germanic languages are related in the sense that they can be shown to be different historical developments of an earlier parent language. Although for some language families there are written records of the mother tongue (for example, the Romance languages, which are different developments of Latin), in the case of German there are no written records of the mother tongue. However, much of its structure can be inferred by the method of comparative reconstruction (a reconstructed language is called a proto-language; reconstructed forms are marked with an asterisk). For example, a comparison of Runic
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In the other languages. in other positions (for example, when followed by a nasal sound plus a consonant) *
The above example shows that such reconstructions are more than just formulas of relations; They also give some indication of how Proto-Germanic sounded. Occasionally researchers are fortunate enough to find external confirmation of these deductions. For example, based on Old English
By pushing the comparative method even further back, Germanic can be shown to be related to a number of other languages, notably Celtic, Attic, Greek, Baltic, Slavic, Iranian and Indo-Aryan (Indi). All these language groups are successive developments of an even earlier parent language for which, again, there are no written records, but which can be reconstructed as Proto-Indo-European (
The special characteristics of the Germanic languages that distinguish them from other Indo-European languages arise from many phonological and grammatical changes.
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. (Stops are produced with a momentary complete cessation of the flow of breath at a certain point in the vocal tract.) By a change known as the German Consonant Shift (or Grimm’s Law), the 12 stops changed in German to voiceless fricatives, voiceless stops, and voiced fricatives (
, respectively, when they followed an unaccented syllable, and the first four of them merged with the already existing *(1792). Despite the importance of this essay, her most critically and commercially successful book was her travelogue Letters Written During a Short Residence in Sweden, Norway, and Denmark (1796)
This book is not just a written record of her travels, but a reflection on an inner journey of loss, grief and personal growth. She challenges the dominance of reason and logic popular at the time and instead creates a romantic work that emphasizes nature, expression of emotion and rebellion against established social rules and conventions.
Wollstonecraft’s personal life and progressive political beliefs made her infamous in her time. In 1793 she had an affair with an American businessman named Gilbert Imlay (Barka and Mee). They never married, and she invested much more in their relationship than he did. Shortly after their daughter Fanny was born, he left to live with an actress in London. This had a very detrimental effect on her mental and emotional health. Despondent and depressed, she attempted suicide in May 1795.
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A month later, Imlay sent her on a journey through Scandinavia to help recover a ship lost in the area. She eagerly accepted the assignment, hoping that it would somehow mend their relationship. Her travelogue is a collection of letters originally sent to Imlay while she was away. They were later edited and partially rewritten to make them more suitable for publication.
Wollstonecraft traveled from Hull, England, up the coast of Sweden to Norway, then back through Sweden to Denmark, ending her trip in Hamburg before sailing back to Dover. In her letters she describes the landscape, the different cultures and the people she meets. However, what sets her book apart from other travel writing is not the journey itself, but the personal journey she takes along the way.
She arrived in Scandinavia with her daughter and maid, but they soon parted ways and her journey was mostly lonely. For a woman “to deliberately choose to travel outside Britain and pretend to write about the societies and cultures she encountered implied a certain degree of individualism, self-confidence and freedom from social restraint that could be seen as almost revolutionary” (Mulligan 6-7). A woman traveling alone was almost unheard of at the time, but she refused to let societal expectations hold her back.
. She elegantly describes the various landscapes she sees, which was typical of romantic writing at the time. However, it is not just the descriptions of the physical landscape that stand out, but the underlying emotions that those descriptions convey. Her language and imagery help the reader gain insight into her heart and mind as she travels. This insight gives a glimpse into a woman dealing with her chaotic emotions and desperately trying to pull herself out of a dark depression into a lighter and happier existence:
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Nature is sentiment’s sister, — the true source of taste; — But what misery, as well as rapture, is produced by a quick perception of the beautiful and the sublime, when it is exercised in the contemplation of living nature, when every beautiful feeling and emotion arouses responsive sympathy, and the adapted soul sinks into melancholy, or rises into ecstasy, just as the chords are touched, like the harp The agitated aioli in the changing wind. But how dangerous it is to cultivate these feelings in so imperfect a state of existence; And how difficult it is to eradicate them when affection for humanity, passion for the individual, is nothing but the revelation of that love which embraces all that is great and beautiful. (39)
The above passage represents her thought process regarding her emotional and mental state. She recognizes the beauty of her surroundings and says no less; Her use of words like “wretchedness” and “enthusiasm” together, as well as “melancholy” and “ecstasy,” represent her changing emotions.
One only for email, and another for publication, to be read by the general public. This is important because “by juxtaposing the public letters and the private letters, it is possible to gain not only some insight into the ways in which the private and the public connect, but also how the private letter and the letter intended for publication use different strategies and present a unique characteristic. A persona that fits the intended reader in any case” (Zakan 75). in the post
The difference in language and tone is mainly what distinguishes the two versions of the letters. For example, in one of the original letters she confesses that “a deadly weight of sorrow lies upon my heart. I am again thrown upon the troubled waves of life; and forced to face difficulties, unhaunted by the hopes which only make them bearable… I long every night to go to sleep, to hide my melancholy face with a pillow; but there is a cankerworm in my bosom that will never sleep” (141). In another original letter, she tells Imlay “My soul has been flooded with sorrow and disappointment. Everything tires me – this is a life that cannot last long.”
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On the other hand, in the letters she published there is an element of hope and optimism that is not often found in it