Ethyl Ending 3 Letters
Ethyl Ending 3 Letters – Acid-Base Equilibrium Part 2: Typical Acid-Base Equilibrium Exam Questions and How to Solve Them Using the pKa Table
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Ethyl Ending 3 Letters
In this tutorial, I want to talk about the nomenclature of complex substituents. In the last tutorial of this series, we discussed the basics of nomenclature and how it works. And now, we’re going to add another layer and learn how to name molecules that have complicated branches for substituents.
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To begin with, let’s talk about the groups that contain only 3 and 4 carbon atoms. When it comes to substituents with 3 and 4 carbon atoms, IUPAC allows the use of common names. These are called “preserved common names” as they were preserved when the modern system was accepted
There are only two 3-carbon chains. The first has the connection at the end of the carbon, while the second — in the middle of the carbon.
We call these the “n-propyl” and “isopropyl” groups. The “n” in n-propyl stands for “normal”, which means we have a straight chain with no branching. The “iso” in isopropyl refers to the propyl “isomer”. This is a historical or common name, so don’t try to make too much sense of it. Like many things in nomenclature, this is something you just have to memorize, like words from the dictionary, when learning a new language.
However, one thing I want to point out is that the “i-” in the iso- prefix will count for alphabetical order when we alphabetize our groups into names. While the “n-” in n-propyl doesn’t matter. In fact, we’ll skip the “n” part altogether since it’s redundant.
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We have normal butyl, sec-butyl, isobutyl and tert-butyl. The prefix “sec” means secondary, while the prefix “tert” means tertiary. Again, these are the traditional names, so you don’t need to remember the logic behind why there is a “sec” or “tert” prefix. But you will need to memorize those names and the corresponding structures for the test.
Also, as with isopropyl, the “i-” in isobutyl will count for alphabetical order, while other prefixes will not. Here’s a simple rule to remember about which prefixes matter and which don’t. If the prefix is hyphenated, it certainly won’t count. If the prefix changes the structure and is written together, such as cyclo- or iso- among those we have already seen, it will count. Finally, neither do numerical prefixes such as di-, tri-tetra-, etc. they won’t count.
Okay, so those were the simple cases that you just have to memorize. How about something more complicated that we can’t memorize?
Here is the example with 5 carbon atoms. This branch is connected to the end of the chain and has no additional branches coming off it.
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This is where IUPAC steps in and tells us the rule: we start numbering at the point of attachment, find the longest chain, and name the rest of the branch as if it were a standalone molecule. Next, we’ll change the ending -ane to -yl to signify that this is still a branch or substituent and not a molecule.
We will count the carbon where it connects to the parent molecule. We then find the longest chain, which in this case is a 4 carbon chain. Then we say there is a methyl group in 1
Position here and collect the rest of the name. Also, to specify that this is a complex substitution, we’ll enclose it in parentheses. The parentheses are not optional here, so make sure you don’t forget the ones in the test!
The first rule of nomenclature is to find the longest continuous chain. In this case, it will be the ring itself.
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Now, we’ll need to arrange those groups alphabetically by name. Here’s something important about what counts for the alphabet in complex placeholders. The first letter in the parentheses will count for alphabetical order, regardless of what it may be (a prefix or something). So in this case, we have the “e” in ethyl vs the “m” in the complex substituent. And since “e” comes before “m” in the alphabet, the ethyl group will come first in the name. This also gives it priority over the complex substituent for numbering preferences, since we do not have the more substituted atom in this ring.
So the name of this compound is 1-ethyl-3-(1-methylbutyl)cyclohexane. Notice how I’ve enclosed the complex substitute in parentheses. Also, notice the punctuation. We still use the same principles we learned in the last tutorial: we use commas between numbers and dashes between numbers and letters. So there is no dash, or space, or comma, or anything between the brackets of the complex substituent and the rest of the molecule, because we treat the brackets as a “letter” for nomenclature purposes.
The first thing we want to do is find the longest chain. In this case, it is a chain with 8 carbon atoms. So the parent will be an octane. We will also number the chain to give the branches the smallest possible number.
Now, we have a complex placeholder, which we already know what to call. It is an isopropyl group. And as mentioned earlier, isopropyl is a retained common name. If we want to use strict IUPAC rules, however, we’ll call it 1-methylethyl. So there are two ways we can go when naming this molecule.
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Option one will use the common name for the group. Notice that we add the prefix di- to signify that we have two isopropyl groups in this molecule.
And we have the second option. In the second option we use the strict IUPAC name. Notice that here we have changed the numerical prefix di- to bis-.
There is actually a difference in which set of number prefixes we use depending on the type of group we have.
For simple substituents such as ethyl, methyl, etc. we use di-, tri-, tetra-, etc. We also use the same prefixes for retained common names such as isopropyl or tert-butyl. For complex substitutes, however, we use slightly modified prefixes. For 2 groups it is bis-, for 3 it is tris-, tetrakis- for 4, pentakis- for five, etc. It’s rare that you’ll see multiples of the same complex substituent, but it’s still possible. So it’s a good idea to know about these special prefixes in case your instructor tries to throw a curve ball at you on the test.
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First, we need to find the longest continuous chain in this molecule. Although it may be tempting to take the two tert-butyl groups and classify them as substituents, this will not be correct. Here, our longest chain has 8 carbon atoms. Also notice the numbering that gives the lowest numbers to the branches near the end of the molecule.
Now, let’s look at the placeholders we have here. We have some simple methyl groups here. And we also have a complex placeholder.
As in the previous case, we can use here the common name retained because it is a group with 4 carbon atoms (tert-butyl). Or we can use the strict IUPAC rules and the call is the 1, 1-dimethylethyl group.
One, using the common name kept. And the other one with the IUPAC name for our complex substituent.
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As for literacy, we have “b” vs “m” in the first case and “d” vs “m” in the second. Note that since the “dimethyl” part belongs to the complex substituent, the letter “d” in this case counts for the alphabet. Remember that we use the first letter of the complex placeholder name, regardless of what that letter is or what part of the complex placeholder it comes from.
Let’s look at something more fun! Here is a cute “giraffe” molecule. Let’s use the rules we just learned to give it a correct IUPAC name.
The longest chain in this molecule is a 6-carbon chain. Notice how I don’t include the 3-membered ring carbon in this number because it’s already part of the substituent.
Remembering the numbering rules in complex substituents, we will start numbering at the point of attachment, making the complex substituent 2, 2-dimethylcyclopropyl. We also have some methyl groups in this molecule that we’ll include in the name, in alphabetical order.
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So the longest chain here is 8 carbon atoms, so our parent or main molecule is going to be octane. We have a few simple substituents here: the cyclohexyl head, a couple of methyl fingers, and the propyl leg. We also have a complex substituent: 2, 2-dimethylpropyl, which is also called neopentyl. However, neopentyl is a common name and has not been retained by the IUPAC, so while your instructor may accept it, it is still incorrect in the sense of the “strict” nomenclature you will need for the exam or MCAT. of