Gorge To Complete Satisfaction 7 Letters
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Gorge To Complete Satisfaction 7 Letters
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Department of Physical Education, Jijingang Campus, College of Education, Zhejiang University, No. 388 Yu Hang Tang Road, Hangzhou 310058, China
Received: 27 January 2022 / Revised: 6 March 2022 / Accepted: 8 March 2022 / Published: 9 March 2022
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Previous studies confirmed that participation in leisure sports can contribute to people’s life satisfaction. However, little is known about the predictors of life satisfaction in the context of long-distance running. A model was proposed in this study to examine the relationship between leisure expertise, self-efficacy, flow experience, and life satisfaction. An online questionnaire was distributed to long-distance runners in China, and a total of 404 valid questionnaires were obtained for data analysis in this study. Results indicated that recreation expertise and self-efficacy had a direct and positive effect on runners’ flow experience; Recreation expertise, self-efficacy, and flow experience were positively related to runners’ life satisfaction. Furthermore, flow experience partially mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and life satisfaction, while it fully mediated the role of leisure expertise on life satisfaction. The findings shed some new insights into understanding the impact of leisure sports involvement on people’s life satisfaction.
Self-efficacy; entertainment expertise; flow experience; life satisfaction; the mediating effect of self-efficacy; entertainment expertise; flow experience; life satisfaction; Mediation effect
Life satisfaction, a cognitive assessment of satisfaction with overall quality of life, serves as a key dimension of subjective well-being . It is defined as “a positive evaluation of a person’s entire life according to criteria determined by him or her” . Foreign governments (eg, the US, Australia, and New Zealand) have used life satisfaction as an important indicator of people’s well-being . Previous studies have confirmed that life satisfaction can be predicted by variables such as personality, self-esteem, income, marriage, and social factors [4, 5, 6, 7, 8]. Although life satisfaction is not equivalent to well-being, other predictors of life satisfaction need to be explored to understand what makes people’s lives better .
Previous studies have confirmed that, among the various predictors of life satisfaction, physically active leisure can play an important role in improving people’s life satisfaction [3, 10]. More importantly, Sato et al. [3, 11] found that participation in long-distance running had a positive effect on the way people evaluated their lives. According to statistics, more than 1,800 marathon events (with more than 800 participants) were held in 337 cities in China in 2020, attracting more than 7.13 million participants, a significant increase from 5.84 million runners in 2018. ). Recent studies confirm that seriously engaging in long-distance running has a positive effect on the subjective well-being of marathoners [11, 12].
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Bryan  developed a conceptual framework called “recreation expertise” to generalize the various behaviors exhibited by individuals when participating in leisure sports activities. This refers to the continuum in which outdoor recreation participants typically progress from general interest and low involvement to specific interest and high involvement [ 14 ]. Most studies assessed an individual’s degree of leisure expertise using a three-dimensional construct , which included behavior, cognition, and affect. Using this construct, scholars have devoted themselves to testing the effect of leisure expertise on other variables such as successful age, place identity, and environmental attitudes [16, 17, 18]. Furthermore, existing literature has also provided some evidence to explore the effect of leisure expertise on life satisfaction. According to the results of recent studies, the influence dimension of leisure expertise showed a positive effect on people’s life satisfaction [3, 4]. Individuals who engaged in more leisure time activities reported experiencing higher levels of life satisfaction and health benefits [10, 19].
As described in previous literature, self-efficacy is defined as “personal judgment of one’s ability to organize and execute courses of action toward specified goals by assessing its level, generality, and strength across contexts and activities” . It reflects confidence in one’s motivation, behavior, and ability to control one’s social environment. Under normal conditions, the stronger a person’s self-efficacy and outcome expectations, the more likely he is to initiate and persist with a given activity . During exercise, individuals with high levels of self-efficacy were generally found to display a greater sense of energy, expend less effort, and experience more positive emotions . Recent studies have found that general self-efficacy was strongly related to college students’ life satisfaction [23, 24]. Therefore, it appears that runners’ life satisfaction may improve as their self-efficacy increases.
Csikszentmihalyi developed the concept of flow experience to understand why individuals commit to certain activities without any material or financial gain . It is defined as a pleasurable, intrinsically rewarding psychological state characterized by full concentration on a particular activity, exclusion of irrelevant thoughts, a sense of everything clicking together, and engagement in challenging situations . The flow experience was generally conceptualized along nine main dimensions, three prerequisites for the flow phenomenon (e.g., challenge-skill balance, clear goals, and task-awareness) and six reflective characteristics of the experience (e.g., transformation of sense of time and transformation of sense of control) [ 25, 27]. Recent research in sport has mainly focused on the flow experience , the role of flow experience on performance , and interventions to enhance flow . Through structural equation modeling, scholars have proven that satisfaction with event levels fully mediated the role of flow experience on people’s overall life satisfaction [ 31 ]. However, the relationship between flow experiences and life satisfaction has not been documented.
The development of the concept of leisure expertise comes from the study of individuals who continuously seek new challenges and advance their skills and knowledge to perform a particular activity . Discussing factors such as bad weather, injury or lack of a partner , people avoid their leisure pursuits when they are bored and depressed. The experience of flow, however, is associated with self-enhancement, self-expression, and self-actualization outcomes in individuals who pursue their leisure time activities seriously . Leisure involvement, equivalent to the effect dimension of leisure expertise, has been found to have a positive effect on people’s flow experiences . As indicated by Wu et al. , experienced individuals were more likely to report having experienced more intense flow experiences than inexperienced individuals. In addition, entertainment expertise mediated the role of flow experience on addictive tendencies.
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Previous studies have provided evidence to support the role of self-efficacy in the experience of flow. For example, in cross-national comparative research, scholars have found self-efficacy to be positively related to undergraduate students’ fluency experiences and engagement [ 36 ]. Another study showed that the greater the self-efficacy, the higher the flow frequency and the higher the challenge and skill levels, which, in turn, predict the flow among teachers in two time periods when engaging in their work-related activities . In sport, recent research also found that self-efficacy has a significant positive relationship with older adults’ flow experience .
When people are highly involved in long-distance running, they engage in regular daily exercise, make significant efforts to improve their knowledge and skills, and show a strong desire to continue running . As specialization progresses, such individuals will come to exhibit higher levels of flow experience, reap various lasting benefits, and report more satisfied lives [29, 31]. Current literature suggests that high levels of self-efficacy are likely to be associated with people’s life satisfaction [23, 24]. As mentioned above, individuals with high levels of self-efficacy are more likely to overcome various difficulties [ 32 ], experience psychological flow [ 36 , 37 , 38 ], and lead more satisfied lives.
In summary, the objectives of this study are twofold. The first is to examine the direct effects between self-efficacy, leisure expertise, flow experience, and life satisfaction. The