Hebrew And Japanese Letters
Hebrew And Japanese Letters – This article contains Hebrew text. Without proper ordering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Hebrew letters.
Modern Hebrew (Hebrew: עברים חדשה, ʿivrít ḥadašá[h], [ivˈʁit χadaˈʃa], lit. “New Hebrew” or “New Hebrew”), also known as Israeli Hebrew or Israeli, and referred to simply by -speak עברים Ivrit), the standard form of the Hebrew language spoken today. Spoken in ancient times, Ancit Hebrew, a member of the Canaanite branch of the Semitic language family, was replaced as a Jewish tradition by the western dialect of Aramaic beginning in the third century BCE, although it was still used as liturgical and literary literature. language. It was revived as a spok language in the 19th and 20th centuries and is the official language of Israel. Of the Canaanite languages, modern Hebrew is the only language spoken today.
Hebrew And Japanese Letters
The majority of speakers are citizens of Israel: about five million Israelis speak modern Hebrew as their native language, 1.5 million are immigrants to Israel, 1.5 million of the Arab citizens of Israel, who usually have Arabic as their first language and half a million of the Israelis away or diaspora Jews living outside of Israel.
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The organization that officially leads the development of the Modern Hebrew language, under the law of the State of Israel, is the Academy of the Hebrew Language.
The most common scholarly term for the language is “Modern Hebrew” (עבריט קדשה ʿivrít ħadašá[h]). Most people refer to it simply as Hebrew (עבריט Ivrit).
In 1999, Israeli linguist Gil’ad Zuckermann proposed the word “Israel” to echo the multiple origins of the language.
Contemporary Jewish sources describe the flourishing of Hebrew as a spoken language in the kingdoms of Israel and Judah, around 1200 to 586 BCE.
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Scholars debate the extent to which Hebrew was the native language after the Babylonian captivity, which became Old Aramaic as the dominant international language of the region.
Hebrew died out as a native language somewhere between 200 and 400 CE, declining after the Bar Kokhba revolt of 132–136 CE, which devastated the population of Judea. After the exile, Hebrew was restricted to liturgical use.
Hebrew was spoken at various times and for various reasons throughout the Diaspora, and during the Old Yishuv it had become the lingua franca spoken among the Jews of Palestine.
Eliezer B-Yehuda led the revival of the Hebrew language as a mother tongue in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Modern Hebrew used Biblical Hebrew morphemes, Mishnaic spelling and grammar, and Sephardic pronunciation. Many idioms and calques were made from Yiddish. It was accepted by the early Jewish immigrants to Ottoman Palestine mainly due to the support of Edmond James de Rothschild’s groups in the 1880s and the official status it received in the 1922 constitution of the British Mandate for Palestine. .
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B-Yehuda codified and designed Modern Hebrew using 8,000 words from the Bible and 20,000 words from rabbinical committees. Many new words were borrowed from Arabic, due to the common Semitic roots of the language with Hebrew, but they were changed to fit Hebrew phonetics and grammar, for example the words gerev (sing.) / garbayim (pl. ) are now applied to “socks,” a diminutive of the Arabic ğuwārib (“stockings”).
In addition, early Jewish immigrants, borrowed from the local Arabs, and later immigrants from Arab lands introduced many nouns as loanwords from Arabic (such as na’ana, zaatar, mishmish , kusbara, ḥilba, lubiya, hummus, gezer, rayḥan, etc.). .), as well as much modern Hebrew vocabulary. Despite B-Yehuda’s reputation as a Hebrew rewer, the most prolific reverber of Hebrew words was the poet Haim Nahman Bialik.
One of the problems with the revival of the Hebrew language is that the old meaning of nouns was changed from time to time for a completely different meaning, such as bardelas (ברדלס), which in Mishnaic Hebrew meant “hya” ,
But in modern Hebrew it now means “cheetah;” or shezīph ( שְׁזִיף ) which is now used for “plum,” but formerly meant “jujube.”
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Now applied to a variety of summer squash (Cucurbita pepo var. cylindrica), a plant native to the New World. Another example is the word kǝvīš (विश्व), which now connotes “street” or “road,” but is actually an Aramaic adjective meaning “trod down; blazed”, rather than a common noun. It was originally used to describe a “blaze trail.”
What is now called a flower called “kalanit” in New Hebrew (Anemone coronaria) was formerly, in Hebrew “shoshanat ha-melekh” (“flower of the king”).
Modern Hebrew is classified as an Afroasiatic language of the Semitic family and a Canaanite branch of the Northwest Semitic subgroup.
While Modern Hebrew is based largely on Mishnaic and Biblical Hebrew as well as the liturgical and literary tradition of Sephardi and Ashkazi from the Middle Ages and Haskalah and retains its Semitic character in its morphology and in much of its syntax,
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The consensus among scholars is that Modern Hebrew represents an entirely new language system, not directly following any previous linguistic situation.
Modern Hebrew is considered to be a koine language based on historical strains of Hebrew that include foreign elements, especially those introduced during the revival period most critical between 1880 and 1920, as well as new eleemts created by speakers through natural linguistic evolution.
A minority of scholars maintain that the revived language was so influenced by various subordinate languages that it is intrinsically linked to Indo-European.
These theories have not been accepted by general agreement, and the consensus among the majority of scholars is that Modern Hebrew, despite its non-Semitic influences, can properly be classified as a language Semitic.
File:paleo Hebrew Letter Kaf.svg
Although modern Hebrew has been influenced by European languages, the influence may have been overwhelming: in terms of features attributed to Middle European European, modern Hebrew is is actually closer to “European” than Biblical Hebrew, but it is still very far away, and it is actually less “European” (in terms of the SAE feature number) than Modern Standard Arabic.
Modern Hebrew is written from right to left using the Hebrew alphabet, which is an abjad, or consonant-only script of 22 letters based on the “square” letter form, known as Ashurit (Assyrian), which was developed from the Aramaic script. Cursive script is used in handwriting. When necessary, vowels are marked with diacritic marks above or below the letters called Nikkud, or by the use of Matres lectionis, which are consonant letters used as vowels. Other diacritics such as Dagesh and dots Sin and Shin are used to indicate variations in the pronunciation of consonants (eg bet/vet, shin/sin). The letters “
ז׳”, each modified by Geresh, reproduces the consonants [t͡ʃ], [d͡ʒ], [ʒ]. [t͡ʃ] can also be written as “תש” and “פש”. [w] on -represented interchangeably with its simple vav “ו”, unusual double vav “וו” and sometimes with unusual modified geresh vav “ו׳”.
Modern Hebrew has fewer phonemes than Biblical Hebrew but has developed its own phonological complexity. Israeli Hebrew has 25 to 27 consonants, depending on whether the speaker has pharyngeals, and 5 to 10 vowels, depending on whether diphthongs and long and short vowels are counted, depending on the speaker and the analysis
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In modern Hebrew /ħ/ for ח has been replaced by /x~χ/ which was traditionally only for the fricative כ, but some (especially older) -Mizrahi speech still divides them.
The glottal consonants are omitted in most unstressed syllables and sometimes also in stressed syllables, but are pronounced in careful or formal speech. In modern Hebrew, /ʕ/ for ע has merged with /ʔ/ (א), but some speakers (especially older Mizrahi speakers) still separate them.
Usually transcribed /r/. This is usually pronounced as uvular fricative or appoximant [ʁ] or velar fricative [ɣ], and sometimes as uvular [ʀ] or alveolar trill [r] or alveolar flap [ɾ], shining behind the person -speak.
But it can appear in native words as a sequence of /t/ ת and /ʃ/ שׁ as in תְּשׁוּקָה /tʃuˈka/.
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Obstruents are often voiced: voiceless obstruents (/ p tts tʃk, fsʃ x /) are voiced ([bdz dʒɡ, vz ʒɣ]) when they appear immediately before they express obstacles, and vice versa.
Long vowels occur imperceptibly if two homogeneous vowels were historically separated by a pharyngeal or glottal consonant, the former of which was stressed.
Any of the five short vowels can be produced as schwa [ə] because it is far from lexical stress.
Most vocabulary words have lexical stress on one of the last two syllables, with the last syllable being more frequent in formal speech. Loanwords can stress the preceding syllable or earlier ev.
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While the pronunciation of Modern Hebrew is based on Sephardi Hebrew, the pronunciation has been influenced by the immigrant communities that have settled in Israel in the past and there has been a general convergence of speech patterns there The pharyngeal [ħ] for the chet phoneme (
א), which is either [ʔ] or unknown [∅] and has become dominant in Modern Hebrew, but in many variations of Sephardi literal Hebrew, it is [ʕ], voiced pharyngeal fricative. The letter vav (
ו) is produced as [v], which is the standard for both Ashkazi and most variants of Sephardi Hebrew. Jews of Iraq, Aleppo, Yem and some areas of North Africa