Like Protozoans 11 Letters
Like Protozoans 11 Letters – Crossword puzzles have been published in newspapers and other publications since 1873. They consist of a grid of squares intended to write words horizontally and vertically.
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Like Protozoans 11 Letters
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The Mckinsey Crossword: C Minus
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Crossword templates in Spanish, French and Japanese are fully supported, including over 100,000 images, so you can create a complete crossword in your target language with all the headings and clues. Clockwise from top left: Blepharisma japonicum, a ciliate; Giardia muris, a parasitic vine; Ctropyxis aculeata, a testate (shelled) amoeba; Peridinium ville, a dinoflagellate; Chaos Carolines, a nudibranch amoebozoan; Desmarella moniliformis, a sonoflagellate
Protozoa, (singular protozoon or protozoan, plural protozoa or protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, free-living or parasitic, that feed on other microorganisms or organic matter such as organic tissues and debris.
Historically, protozoans have been considered “unicellular animals” because they often have animal-like behaviors, such as locomotion and hunting, and lack the cell wall found in plants and many algae.
When George Goldfuss (originally spelled Goldfuss) introduced it in 1818, the genus Protozoa was established as a class within the animal kingdom.
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With the word ‘protozoa’ meaning “first animals”. In later classification schemes it was elevated to various higher ranks, including phylum, subkingdom, and kingdom, and sometimes included within Protoctista or Protista.
The approach of classifying protozoa within the context of Animalia was widespread in the 19th and early 20th centuries, but not universal.
In the 1970s, it became customary to claim that all taxa were monophyletic (descended from a common ancestor, also considered protozoan), and holophyletic (comprising all known descendants of that common ancestor). The taxon ‘Protozoa’ fails to meet these standards, and the practice of grouping Protozoa with animals and treating them as closely related is no longer justified. The term continues to be used to describe single-celled protists (i.e., eukaryotes that are not animals, plants, or fungi) that feed by heterotrophy.
Although aware that the traditional taxonomic concept of “Protozoa” does not meet contemporary taxonomic standards, some authors continue to use the name, while applying it to different purposes of organisms. In successive classifications by Thomas Cavalier-Smith and collaborators since 1981, the taxon Protozoa has been used for a restricted circle of organisms and ranked as a kingdom.
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The scheme proposed by Ruggiero et al. As of 2015, the Kingdom places eight closely related phyla within the Protozoa: Euclozoa, Amoebozoa, Metamonata, Chonozoa essu Cavalier-Smith, Leukozoa, Pergozoa, Microsporidia, and Salgozoa.
Notably, this approach excludes several groups of organisms traditionally placed among protozoa, including ciliates, dinoflagellates, foraminifera, and parasitic apicomplexans, which are placed under the polyphyletic Chromista, among other groups such as Alveolata and Stramophiles. The protozoa in this scheme do not form a monophyletic and holophyletic group (clade), but a paraphyletic group or evolutionary rank because it excludes some descendants of the protozoa used in this sse.
The term “protozoa” (singular protozoon) was coined by the zoologist Georg August Goldfuß (=Goldfuß) in 1818 and is the Greek equivalent of the German Urthiere, meaning “primitive, or original animal” (ur- ‘proto-‘ + Thier”). . animal’).
First, the group includes not only single-celled microbes, but also some “lower” multicellular animals such as rotifers, corals, seaweeds, jellyfish, bryozoa, and polychaete worms.
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The word protozoa is derived from the Greek words πρῶτος (prôtos), meaning “first”, and ζῶα (zôa), plural ζῶον (zôon), meaning “animal”.
The use of protozoa as a systematic taxon is discouraged by some researchers because the term implies a relationship with animals (metazoa).
In 1848, as a result of advances in the design and construction of microscopes and the cell theory pioneered by Theodor Schwann and Matthias Schleit, the anatomist and zoologist C. D. Von Sieboldt proposed that the bodies of protozoa such as ciliates and amoeba should be included. Single cells are similar to those made up of multicellular tissues of plants and animals. Von Siebold redefined protozoa to include only single-celled forms, excluding all metazoa (animals).
At the same time, he elevated the group to the status of a phylum consisting of two broad classes of microorganisms: infusoria (mostly ciliates) and flagellates (flagellated protists) and amoeba (amoeboid organisms). The definition of protozoa as a block or subkingdom of “unicellular animals” was adopted by the zoologist Otto Büchli—celebrated in his category as the “architect of protosology.”
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John Hawke’s illustration of the four kingdoms of nature, showing the “Primicle” as a gray cloud at the base of animals and plants, 1860
As a phylum under Animalia, Protozoa was firmly rooted in a simplistic “two-kingdom” concept of life, according to which all organisms were classified as either animals or plants. Until this scheme became dominant, protozoa were understood as animals and studied in zoological disciplines, while photosynthetic microbes and microscopic fungi—called protophyta—were assigned to plants and studied in botanical disciplines.
Criticism of the system began in the late 19th century, when many species met the criteria for inclusion in both plants and animals. For example, the algae Eucla and Dinophyrian have chloroplasts for photosynthesis like plants, but also eat organic matter and are motile like animals. In 1860, John Hawke argued against the use of “protozoa”, stating that “naturalists are divided in opinion – and some will continue to be so – whether these organisms, or many of these organisms, are animals or plants.”
As an alternative, he proposed a new kingdom called Primicum, which includes protozoa and unicellular algae, which he combined under the name “Protoctista”. In Hawkes’s conception, the animal and plant kingdoms favored two large “pyramids” at their bases in the primordial kingdom.
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Six years later, Ernst Haeckel also proposed a third kingdom of life, which he named Protista. Originally, Haeckel included some multicellular organisms in this kingdom, but in later work, he limited Protista to single-celled organisms, or simple colonies in which individual cells do not differentiate into different types of tissue.
Despite these proposals, Protozoa emerged as the preferred taxonomic location for heterotrophic microorganisms such as amoeba and ciliates, and remained so for over a century. Over the course of the 20th century, the old “two-kingdom” system began to weaken, as fungi did not belong to plants, and most unicellular protozoa were not closely related to animals. For plants. By mid-century, Herbert Copeland, Robert H. Some biologists, such as Whittaker and Lynn Margulies, have supported the revival of Haeckel’s Protista or Hawkes’ Protoctista as a kingdom-level eukaryotic group along with plants and animals.