Old Gold Coin Crossword Clue 5 Letters
Old Gold Coin Crossword Clue 5 Letters – It was a coin minted in Great Britain between 1663 and 1814, containing one-fourth gold.
The name originates from the West African region of Guinea, where most of the gold used in coinage was obtained.
Old Gold Coin Crossword Clue 5 Letters
It was the first machine-struck bright gold coin, equal to 20 shillings sterling, equal to one pound.
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But the rise of gold relative to silver caused the value of a guinea to rise sometimes to thirty shillings. From 1717 to 1816 its price was officially set at twenty-one shillings.
In the Great Recoinage of 1816, the guinea was demonetized and the word “guinea” became a colloquial or special term. Although the coin itself is no longer in circulation, the term guinea has survived as a unit of account in some areas. Notable uses include professional fees (medical, legal, etc.) often paid in Guinea, and horse racing and greyhound racing.
And sale of rams. In each case a guinea represents one pound and one shilling (21 shillings, £1.05 in decimals).
The first Guinea was minted on February 6, 1663 (359 years ago) (1663-02-06); A proclamation of March 27, 1663 made the coins legal tender. 11 ⁄12 troy pounds (0.9133)
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Thus, each theoretically weighs 129,438 grains (8.385 grams of crown gold, 7.688 grams of fine gold, or 0.247191011 ounces (troy ounces) of pure gold).
The coin was originally valued at twenty shillings (one pound), but the rise in gold prices during the reign of King Charles II caused it to sell at a high price in the market. The value of gold continued to rise during times of particular difficulty, and by the 1680s the coin was worth 22 silver shillings. Indeed, in his diary of 13 June 1667, Samuel Pepys wrote that the price was 24-25 shillings.
During the reign of Charles II, the coinage was 1 inch (25.4 mm) in diameter and the average gold fineness (from a 1773 assay of samples of coins issued the previous year) was 0.9100. “Guinea” was not the official name of the coin, but most of the gold used to produce the early coins came from Guinea (mostly present-day Ghana) in West Africa.
Annually from 1663 to 1665 and to 1668, and on other coins struck from 1674 or 1675, an elephant with a Howdah.
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The elephant was the emblem of the Royal African Company (RAC), which from 1672 to 1698 had a monopoly on the lucrative trade with Africa in slaves, gold and other goods. Imported from Africa by the RAK, the emblem was an elephant on the head of the monarch.
1700). The obverse shows a fine bust of Charles II facing right wearing a laurel wreath (several times during his reign), flanked by the pedimented CAROLVS II DEI GRATIA (“Charles II by the grace of God”), while the reverse shows four figures. cruciform shields bearing the arms of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, with four staves between them, and in the cross four interlocking “C’s” with the inscription MAG BR FRA ET HIB REX (“From Great Britain,”) surrounded. King of France and Ireland”). The edge was milled to avoid clipping or filling and to distinguish it from silver half-crowns with rim lettering. Before 1669 the milling was perpendicular to the edge, giving vertical notches, but from 1670 the milling edge was diagonal to the edge.
John Roettiers continued to design dies for this dominion during the reign of King James II. In this reign, coins weighed 8.5 g (0.27 oz), were 25–26 mm (0.98–1.02 in) in diameter, and were struck in all years between 1685 and 1688, with an average gold fineness of 0.9094. Each year’s coins were issued with or without the elephant and castle insignia. The king’s head remains in this reign and is surrounded by the inscription IACOBVS II DEI GRATIA (“James II by the grace of God”), and the obverse is the same as in the reign of Charles II, except for the interlocking “C”. lar in the case of the coin. The edges of the coins are cut diagonally.
After James II was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, his daughter Mary and her husband Prince William of Orange ruled as joint monarchs. Their heads appear to be united in a Roman-style guinea piece, William’s head uppermost, GVLIELMVS ET MARIA DEI GRATIA (“William and Mary by the grace of God”) at the foot. In a departure from previous reigns, the reverse features an entirely new design of a large crowned shield bearing the arms of a gland and France in the first and fourth quarters, Scotland in the second quarter, and Ireland in the third quarter. Nassau is an entire sable with a small shield surmounted by a lion; The obverse reads MAG BR FR ET HIB REX ET REGINA (“Magna Britannia” of Great Britain, “Francia” of France, and “Hibernia” of King and Que of Ireland) and the year. During the early part of this reign the value of a guinea rose to nearly 30 shillings. These royal guineas weighed 8.5 g (0.30 oz), were 25–26 mm (0.98–1.02 in) in diameter, and were the work of James and Norbert Roettiers. They were produced in all years between 1689 and 1694, with and without elephant and castle; In 1692 and 1693, the elephant symbol was also used.
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After Mary of Kew died of smallpox in 1694, William continued to rule as William III. The Guinea coin was issued in all years from 1695 to 1701, both with and without the elephant and castle, the design is probably the work of Johann Crocker, known as John Crocker, as James Roettiers died in 1698 and his brother Norbert. In 1695 he moved to France.
The coins of William III’s reign weighed 8.4 g (0.27 oz), with an average fineness of 0.9123 gold. The diameter was 25–26 mm (0.98–1.02 in) before 1700 and 26–27 mm (1.02–1.06 in) in 1701. William’s head facing on his coins, feet GVLIELMVS III DEI GRATIA, and the reverse The reigns of William and Mary were deemed unsuccessful, so the design reverted to that used by Charles II and James II, but a small shield with the lion of Nassau on a cross, feet MAG BR FRA ET HIB REX and with . The coin had an oblique edge.
During the reign of Que Anne (1702–1714), guineas were minted in all years 1702–1714 except 1704. Below the bust of Que is the word VIGO to commemorate the origin of the gold captured on Spanish ships in Guinea in 1703. Battle of Vigo Bay.
With the Acts of Union of 1707, the union of the Parliament of Scotland with the Parliament of England created the United Kingdom of Great Britain, and the design of the reverse of the first true British Guinea was changed. Before union, the cruciform shields on the reverse show the arms of the gland, in the order of Scotland, France and Ireland, separated by scepters and with a crural rose and footed MAG BR FRA ET HIB REG (“Great Britain, France”). , and Ireland Que”), and the year. By the Act of Union, the gilt and Scottish arms appear to be united in one shield, the left half being the gilt arms and the right half the Scottish arms, while the order of arms appearing on the shields becomes a gland and Scotland, France, gland and Scotland, Ireland The elephant and castle may appear on coins of 1708 and 1709. The reverse design shows the Star of the Garter.
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The coins weighed 8.3 g (0.29 oz), were 25 mm (0.98 in) in diameter, and had a gold fineness of 0.9134. The edge of the coin is cut diagonally.
All the guineas of Queen Anne and King George I were laid by John Crocker, an immigrant from Dresden in the Duchy of Saxony.
Guinea coins of King George I were minted in all years from 1714 to 1727, with the elephant and castle appearing occasionally in 1721, 1722 and 1726. His guineas are distinguished by the use of five different portraits of the king, and in 1714. declared him Prince Elector of the Holy Roman Empire. The weight of the coins was 8.3–8.4 grams, the diameter was 25–26 millimeters, the average purity of gold was 0.9135.
The 1714 obverse shows a standing portrait of the king facing right, GEORGIVS DG MAG BR FR ET HIB REX F D (“George, King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland by the grace of God of Fiday Dessor”). later coins bear GEORGIVS D G M BR FR ET HIB REX F D. On the reverse, in the same heraldic design as before, the order of the shields is gland and Scotland, France, Ireland and Hanover, the feet 1714 BRVN ET LVN DUX S R I A TH