Pear Shaped Fruit 3 Letters
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Variation in pedicel structural properties among four pear species (Pyrus): understanding the relationship between fruit characteristics and pedicel structure
Pear Shaped Fruit 3 Letters
The fruit pedicel is the bridge connecting the parent tree and the fruit, and is an important conduit for transporting water and nutrients to the fruit. Genetic traits determine pedicel and fruit characteristics, but the relationship between pedicel structure and fruit characteristics has not been studied. Combining fruit characterization studies, statistical analysis of pedicel structural properties, and 2D and 3D pedicel anatomical observations, this study found unique contributions of pedicel elements to fruit characteristics of four pear species. European pears (Conference) showed fruit shape index and pedicel structural properties compared to oriental pears (Akizuki, Yali and Nanguoli). Fruit size is positively correlated with pedicel length, fiber area, pedicel diameter, cortex area, and phloem area; however, fruit firmness and soluble solids concentration showed stronger positive correlations with xylem area, pith area, percentage of xylem area, sieve tube area, and percentage of pith area. Pedicel elements, including pith, fiber and cortex, play a specific role in fruit growth due to variation in characteristics in four pear species. Vessel porosity, surface area to volume ratio, and vessel spatial arrangement showed significant differences among pear species, indicating differences in pedicel hydraulic conductivity. Our findings provided direct evidence that the structural elements of the pedicel contribute significantly to the fruit characteristics of pear species.
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In fruit trees, the pedicel is a bridge connecting the parent tree and the fruit, through which water, mineral nutrients and photosynthates are delivered to the fruit. Therefore, the characteristics of fruits are greatly influenced by the efficiency of transport of water and nutrients through the pedicel, which is determined by the structural properties of the pedicel. During the early stages of fruit growth, water enters the fruit mainly through the xylem (Greenspan et al., 1994, 1996) and then mainly through the phloem, as xylem function gradually declines with fruit development (Bondada et al., 2005). Mineral elements in the soil enter the apoplast pathway of the root and are transported to the fruit through the xylem pathway along with the mass flow of water (Gilliham et al., 2011), and photosynthate is transported to the fruit through the phloem pathway. Therefore, the structural properties of both xylem and phloem of the pedicel affect fruit growth.
In a study involving nine fruit species, root density, size and pedicel area showed considerable variation among them, but loss of xylem function along with fruit ripening and pedicel Ca content was found as a universal pattern. , shows that there is a pedicel-fruit “pull” effect on Ca transport across species (Song W. et al., 2018). In another study of fruit pedicel, Ca content in phloem was higher than that in xylem during fruit growth, such as litchi, suggesting that Ca may be delivered to the fruit by phloem mass flow (Song W. P. et al., 2018). ). Other lines of evidence have shown a correlation between fruit diameter and fruit size (Bustan et al., 1995; Nii, 1998) and it has been suggested that pear fruit as a fruit regulates pedicel root bundle development. grown from juvenile to mature stage (Nii, 1980). Cotton growth was impaired by reduced carbohydrate translocation due to changes in pedicel structure (de Oliveira et al., 2006). In grapes, the hydraulic conductivity between the fruit and the pedicel is significantly reduced at later ripening stages, mainly due to a decrease in pedicel permeability (Choate et al., 2009; Knipfer et al., 2015). In tomato, pedicel hydraulic properties have shown significant changes during development, which are thought to be related to anatomical changes in the xylem (Lee, 1989; Van Ieperen et al., 2003; Rančić et al., 2008, 2010). All these observations show that fruit quality is closely related to its structural properties, especially the transport capacity of the pedicel, which is determined by the xylem and phloem. However, the effect of pedicel transport capacity on fruit growth is still controversial. For example, Zhang et al. (2005) reported that photosynthate accumulation during rapid fruit growth is limited by the sink strength of the fruit rather than by the transport capacity of the pear pedicel. Although cultivars are known to vary greatly in fruit appearance, flavor, nutrients, and ripening time, as well as morphological characteristics of their offspring due to genetic control, there is still a relationship between pedicel structural properties and fruit traits. is not fully understood and requires further research.
Pears (Pyrus spp.) are commercially important and popular fruit crops worldwide. Pyrus communis, Pyrus breschneideri, Pyrus pyrifolia and Pyrus ussuriensis are the four main species grown in pear-growing regions around the world. Both fruit characteristics and pedicel morphological characteristics of the four species show significant differences. Combining fruit characterization, microscopic observation and measurement of pedicel hydraulic conductivity, and X-ray computed microtomographic analysis of pedicel structure, this study was conducted to fully understand the relationship between pedicel structural properties and fruit. features.
Four 10-year-old varieties of pear, namely Conference (P. communis), Akizuki (P. pyrifolia), Yali (P. breschneideri) and Nanguoli (P. ussuriensis) were used in this study. Trees were planted at 2 m within rows and 5 m between rows under the same standard fertilizer and irrigation management as a commercial orchard at Jiaozhou Experimental Station, Qingdao Agricultural University, located at 36°19′N and 120°23′E. in China’s Shandong Province. The trees are cut every December with a delayed open central leader system. The pH of the soil was about 6.5. Five trees of each species were used for fruit collection.
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30 fruits of each variety were collected for character analysis. To obtain uniform biological maturity, fruits of Conference, Akizuki, Yali and Nanguoli were harvested at 120, 135, 150 and 130 days after full flowering, respectively. Fruit size was determined by measuring vertical and transverse diameters using an electronic caliper (Mitutoyo, Japan). Fruit shape index is expressed as the ratio of vertical diameter to transverse diameter. Fruit firmness and soluble solids concentration Cui et al. (2020).
Pedicels were collected from mature fruits for structural analysis. Pedicel length and diameter were measured using an electronic caliper (Mitutoyo, Japan). The middle part of the fresh pedicel was used for frozen sectioning according to Kawamoto (2003) with some modifications. Briefly, fresh pedicels were fixed in 70% ethanol for 2 h, then transferred to 5% glycerol for 2 h, and then snap-frozen in a −15°C prechilled container. Optimum cutting temperature (OCT) compound (No. 4583, Sakura, United States) was used as embedding medium. The frozen OCT compound block was then attached to the sample stage for sectioning using a cryostat (CM1950, Leica, Germany). The section thickness is set at 10 µm. Sections were stretched on glass slides for 10 min at room temperature. Next, sections were stained with 5 mg/ml trypan blue (dissolved in 2% acetic acid) for 3 min, followed by 10 mg/ml acridine red (dissolved in 50% ethanol) for 5 min and 10 mg/ml acridine yellow. (dissolved in 2% acetic acid) 40 s. After rinsing with distilled water for 2 min, the tissues were covered with 1 ml of 50% glycerol before observation under a fluorescence microscope (DM2500, Leica, Germany). Different tissues in cross-sections were recognized and their areas were calculated using Leica Application SuiteX 3.4.2 software (Leica, Germany).
For three-dimensional (3D) and high-resolution non-destructive imaging of pedicel microstructure, pedicels were imaged using a nanoVoxel-3502E system (Saying Precision Instruments Co., Ltd., Tianjin) after being collected from the fruit. Scanning was performed with parameters as shown in Table 1. Transverse and longitudinal slices were generated from the shadow projections using Feldkamp’s reconstruction algorithm (Feldkamp et al., 1984). The pedicle was rotated on the stage in 0.2°C increments over a total of 360°C at room temperature, generating 1800 2D projection images. 2D projection images were reconstructed using OCTOPUS 8.6 software (Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium), and reconstructed 3D images were visualized using Avizo 8.1 software (Thermo Fisher Scientific, China).
To distinguish the structural properties of the four types of pears, scanning data were obtained from a 100 μm × 100 μm × 300 μm volume.