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Phe Words 5 Letters – Correction: Hansma, H.G. Potassium in the Origins of Life: Did the Biology of Biotite Originate in Micaceous Clay? Life 2022, 12, 301
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Phe Words 5 Letters
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Coevolution of biomolecules and bioinformatics systems in the origin of life: a visual model for first gene assembly
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Received: May 11, 2022 / Revised: May 23, 2022 / Accepted: June 1, 2022 / Published: June 2, 2022
Prebiotic information systems exist in three formats: analog, hybrid and digital. The Analog Information System (AIS), which appeared early in autogenesis, was expressed in chiral selection, nucleotide formation, self-assembly, polymerization, polymer encapsulation, and proto-cell division. It generated non-coding RNAs by nucleotide polymerization that gave rise to the Hybrid Information System (HIS). HIS used different types of non-coding RNA, such as ribozymes, pre-tRNAs and ribosomes, and functional enzymes, including bridge peptides, pre-aRS, and aaRS (aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase). Some of these hybrid components build the translation machinery step by step. HIS launched the Digital Information System (DIS), where tRNA molecules become molecular engineers to design mRNAs step-by-step, using two distinct genetic codes. First, they generated mRNA codons by base pair interaction (codon-codon mapping). Second, each charged tRNA transmitted its amino acid information to the corresponding codon (codon-amino acid mapping), with the help of the aaRS enzyme. With the advent of mRNA-encoded molecules, the first genes appeared before DNA. With the genetic memory in the mRNA digital sequence, a mapping mechanism has been developed between each codon and a similar amino acid. As more and more codons “remember” their amino acids, the mapping system has developed this genetic code into their memory bank. We compare three types of bioinformatics systems with similar types of man-made computer systems.
Co-evolution of biomolecules and information systems; peptide/RNA realm; hydrothermal crater lakes; prebiotic information systems; Analog information Hybrid information Digital information Transfer memory and memory bank; Genetic code AnyLogic visualization of mRNAs encoding by tRNA coevolution of biomolecules and information systems; peptide/RNA realm; hydrothermal crater lakes; prebiotic information systems; Analog information Hybrid information Digital information Transfer memory and memory bank; AnyLogic visualization genomic code for mRNAs encoding by tRNA
The origin of life on Earth and its information systems have been among the most enduring mysteries of modern science. Evidence for the origin of life comes from astrobiology, early Earth, biochemistry, molecular biology, and laboratory experiments. As information permeates life, any study of spontaneous formation must address the origin of biological information systems as well. Information is one of the main characteristics, and perhaps the main characteristic, that separates life from non-life. It is the logic of life that makes the living system more orderly, orderly and complex. The way information flows through and between biomolecules and cells is unique in nature . The biological and informational evolution of the Earth is intertwined and inseparable. Life and its information systems form a closely related entity, influencing each other in a complex feedback loop. Life is an information processing system that can store and process information necessary for its growth, metabolism, and self-reproduction. Life transmits heritable information to its offspring and undergoes Darwinian evolution. This is how life generates life and creates biodiversity. The information does not change whether it is encoded in nucleic acids or proteins: the information is substrate independent. The concept of information is central to a meaningful description of biological processes, but its status as a physical entity remains elusive. Darwinian evolution tends to increase information content and decrease randomness during spontaneous evolution.
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It is generally believed that two types of biological information, analog and digital, arose about four billion years ago during spontaneous generation [1, 2, 3]. De Duve  viewed life paths as specific and directional, the vector of evolution being structural, informational and catalytic molecules. It is known in biochemistry that biomolecules are very sensitive to changes in their environment – changes in pressure, temperature, pH concentration, ATP concentration, molecular count, etc. Dynamic and flexible system of adaptation and rapid response to changes in the environment. Biomolecules have a reconfigurable internal structure that enables them to change in the best way to meet the environment and solve the problem. They also have to deal with limited resources and time. Analog computing is best suited for such a situation. It requires fewer parts, fewer resources, less energy and less time than digital computing. Therefore, biomolecules – large and small – are analog machines with their own analog information system. They perform analog computing. It is very useful to understand the nature of the molecular analog information system. The internal structure of an analog information system is not fixed like a digital information system. Alternatively, the internal structure of the analog information system can be reconfigured and solve the problem (or situation) by changing its structure in an appropriate manner .
Each molecular unit has its own information and information system, which means that “information comes from within”. In other words, molecular units may receive signals from the environment, but contain their own information for signal processing. Each molecular unit performs its function using its structure, information and the rules of association between the information function . We assert that the information contained and used by different molecular units is in the form of four main categories – time, space, control and energy. Time information consists of time elements such as rate, hour, etc. Spatial information consists of spatial elements such as pattern, proximity, gravity, sequence, etc. Control information includes signal and regulatory elements. Energy information includes potential energy, differences in charge, etc. Molecular units use, consume, and produce this information.
Molecular information systems started early in the interstellar medium as the building blocks of life, which were delivered to young Earth by meteorites during the heavy bombardment. Analog information systems appeared first in spontaneous generation, followed by digital information systems. Working separately and in close cooperation, these two information systems simplify the synthesis of prebiotics from chaotic molecular assemblies and provide direction for the flow of information.
The Digital Information System (DIS) includes genetic information slowly generated by the mRNA nucleotide-encoded sequences in the peptides/RNA realm. It is late in spontaneous generation. The digital information is discrete and encoded in linear sequences of nucleotides in mRNA and later in DNA. The nucleotide sequence of mRNA and DNA determines the information content of the molecules. The processing of digital information in translation, genetic code and transcription is familiar to us. Less appreciated are the analog aspects of information processing.
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The division between analog and digital information is not clear. We show that between analog and digital there is a transitional information stage, which we call the hybrid information system. The identification of these three systems helps us document the co-evolution of biomolecules and information systems during autogenesis. These new approaches to prebiotic information systems are essential to understanding the origin of life.
Organisms collect and store information from the environment in order to survive. They adapt to their environment by using information to harvest energy and evade balance. Life is characterized and sustained by the many information-rich biological processes that govern cellular functions and contribute significantly to its overall complexity. Information is an important prerequisite for the beginning of life. Prebiotic information was undoubtedly much simpler and gradually built up over time.
Yockey  distinguished the processes of analog and digital information systems. spontaneous, mixed and three-dimensional analog information; The ingredients come from within the molecules. In contrast, digital information is linear, sequential, discrete, and oriented by coding rules. It’s more powerful