Reinvigorate Restore 10 Letters
Reinvigorate Restore 10 Letters – Nutritional composition and volatile compounds of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seeds, composition of fatty acids and tocopherols, polyphenols and antioxidant activity of its essential oil
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Reinvigorate Restore 10 Letters
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By Min-Rui Wang 1, * , Jean Carlos Bettoni 2, * , A-Ling Zhang 1 , Xian Lu 1 , Dong Zhang 1, * and Qiao-Chun Wang 1
Natural And Working Lands — Recent Leadership — U.s. Climate Alliance
State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Region, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
Received: June 11, 2022 / Revised: June 21, 2022 / Accepted: June 23, 2022 / Published: June 24, 2022
In vitro micrografting is an important technique that supports the micropropagation of a variety of plant species, especially woody plant species. In recent decades, in vitro micrografting has become a strategy to facilitate the recovery and acclimatization of horticultural species grown in vitro. This review focuses on studies on horticultural crops in the last two decades covering the establishment of micrografting in vitro, discusses the factors affecting the success of micrografting in vitro, and provides comments on the contribution of the applications of micrografting to the field of micropropagation. Considering the important roles of micrografting in restoring vigor and rooting competence, in promoting shoot recovery after somatic embryogenesis and organogenesis, and in facilitating shoot regrowth after cryopreservation, the potential use of this technique in facilitating genetic engineering and the safe conservation of horticultural species are especially highlighted.
Cryopreservation; in vitro transplants; propagation in vitro; somatic embryogenesis; cryopreservation of organogenesis; in vitro transplants; propagation in vitro; somatic embryogenesis; organogenesis
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Plant grafting, a common practice for the vegetative propagation of crops, refers to the natural or deliberate connection of two discrete plant segments . Grafting can be used to avoid young woody perennial species and can confer important agronomic characteristics to scions, such as uniformity of plant architecture and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses [1, 2, 3, 4]. In addition, the scion-rootstock combination can affect tree vigor, yield and fruit quality, and can extend the harvest season [5, 6]. After the advent of in vitro plant tissue culture in the early 1900s , a grafting system with tissue culture (micrografting) was first demonstrated by Doorenbos  in ivy and then Holmes  in chrysanthemum in the 1950s, and was later developed and standardized for the eradication of viruses from citrus species by Murashige et al.  and Navarro et al. . To date, in vitro micrografting (IVM) has been widely applied (1) in pathogen management to facilitate pathogen eradication, indexing and transmission, as well as incompatibility assessments graft induced by pathogen infection [11, 12, 13, 14]. , 15]; (2) to facilitate rooting in vitro [16, 17, 18, 19], to enhance regenerated plant tissue cultures during micropropagation [19, 20, 21, 22], and for rapid evaluation of the compatibility of the graft [23, 24, 25], 26]; and (3) in studies focused on the molecular mechanism of graft compatibility, as well as the exchange and traffic of macromolecules between scions and rootstocks [ 27 , 28 , 29 , 30 ].
IVM is an important technique that facilitates the micropropagation of horticultural crops and forest species due to the following characteristics. First, IVM is often performed on seedlings to obtain rooted plants in species in which in vitro root induction is difficult [ 16 , 31 ]; secondly, it can reduce the specific responses of the scion species to the culture medium, as the rootstock mediates the delivery of the hormonal and nutritional needs necessary for the recreation of the scion from the medium [18, 32, 33]; third, IVM can be performed throughout the year using scions and rootstocks at the same physiological stage, while the success of grafting in vivo is dependent on the season [ 17 , 21 ]. IVM is performed in an aseptic controlled environment with high humidity. This stable environment in vitro and the probable pathogen-free status of micro-scion/rootstock can favor the formation of callus and the rapid establishment of vascular reconnection between scions and rootstocks necessary for the success of the graft [34, 35]. Micrografting protocols have been developed for several fruit crops including almond , apple , apricot , avocado , cocoa , cashew , cherimoya , cherry , citrus [40, 41], guava , grape , jujube , mulberry , hazelnut , kiwi , passion fruit , olive , peach , pear , pistachio , plum , walnut [49, 50] and watermelon .
To highlight how IVM can be used to improve micropropagation in horticulture, this review presents the results of recent studies using IVM, with a focus on the factors that affect the success of micrografting.
The origin and type of scion material are some of the determinants in successful micrografting [34, 52, 53, 54]. The scions used in micrografting, usually shoots or shoot tips, can be obtained from plants grown in vitro or ex vitro. Scion material is traditionally obtained from plants in vitro, having the advantage of being free from fungal and bacterial contamination, the desired size, and being available over the year [35, 53, 55]. The use of ex vitro material, however, may introduce a component of seasonality to the procedure, since the excised plant material may be in a dormant phase . However, the newly excised shoot apex from trees that are actively growing in the field or in the greenhouse can be used in micrografting processes [17, 34]. Spine tips from in vivo plants were surface sterilized immediately prior to wire tip/shoot preparation followed by micrografting. Usually, a short treatment of 70% ethyl alcohol is combined with a longer treatment of sodium hypochlorite or mercuric chloride for surface sterilization .
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Tissue encrustation is a common problem during the establishment of in vitro cultures [ 41 , 57 ]. Similarly, in IVM, wounds in scion/rootstock preparation can also cause browning and oxidation of plant tissues resulting in poor graft success [36, 56, 58]. The adverse effects of tissue browning can be minimized by pre-soaking scions in antioxidant solution [39, 59, 60]. In cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) and apple (Malus domestica), Thimmappaiah et al.  and Nunes et al. , respectively, reduced the phenolic exudation presing the cut edge of the scion with 0.01% ascorbic acid and 0.015% citric acid (1:1) before grafting in vitro. A reduced browning of tissues in cashew can also be obtained by pre-conditioning sprouts in vitro in culture media enriched with 0.1% polyvinylpyrrolidone before scion preparation . In the development of a protocol for the micrografting of native and commercial roses, Davoudi Pahnekolayi et al.  showed that silver nitrate, as an antioxidant, played a key role in preventing the production of phenolic compounds that could lead to micrografting failure. They discovered that a rapid immersion treatment (5-10 min) of wounded explants (scions and rootstocks) with silver nitrate (50 mg L).
) before micrografting could prevent browning of the tissue and consequently increase the survival of the micrografts [ 59 ]. In contrast, Wu et al.  noted that the micrografts of Protea cynaroides had reduced viability when the scions were soaked in ascorbic acid and citric acid solution; The treatment with the antioxidant solution induced more browning in the scions than in those not treated. These results indicated that the rapid operation of micrografting was more important in preventing tissue encrustation than pretreatment, as suggested by Navarro . Another possible reason could be the insufficient concentration of antioxidants counterproductively promoting the spread of phenolic oxidation due to the improved moisture of the graft site . Therefore, the response of antioxidants to the reduction/inhibition of phenolic brown may be dependent on the species, and their concentrations and/or combinations are other critical points to be addressed.
In vitro germinated seedlings and in vitro cultured shoot segments are the two major sources of rootstocks used in micrografting (Table 1). To prepare rootstock seedlings for micrografting, in vitro germination of seeds is the first step, with varied protocols required.