Relating To Bees 5 Letters
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Relating To Bees 5 Letters
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Behind The Bee Brain
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Animal Population Ecology, Animal Ecology I, Bayreuth Center for Ecology and Environmental Research (BayCEER), University of Bayreuth, Universitätsstr. 30, 95447 Bayreuth, Germany
Received: February 16, 2020 / Reviewed: February 18, 2020 / Accepted: February 24, 2020 / Posted: March 1, 2020
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Many insect species, including social insects, are currently declining in abundance and diversity. Pollutants such as pesticides, heavy metals or fine airborne particles from agricultural and industrial sources are among the factors behind this decline. Although these pollutants can have direct detrimental effects, they can also lead to negative interactive effects when social insects are simultaneously exposed to multiple stressors. For example, the sublethal effects of pollutants can increase the susceptibility to diseases of social insects and thus compromise their survival. Here we examine how pesticides, heavy metals or fine airborne particles interact with the social physiology of insects and in particular the insect immune system. We then give an overview of current knowledge on the interactive effects of these pollutants with pathogens or parasites. While the effects of pesticide exposure on social insects and their interactions with pathogens have been relatively well studied, the effects of other pollutants, such as heavy metals in soil or fine particles from combustion , vehicle transportation, agriculture and coal mining are still largely unknown. We therefore provide an overview of the knowledge urgently needed to mitigate the decline of social insects.
Susceptibility to disease; fine particles; heavy metal; pesticide; social susceptibility to insect diseases; fine particles; heavy metal; pesticide; social insect
Currently, the abundance and diversity of insects are declining worldwide [1, 2, 3]. Various factors contribute to this decline [1, 3]. Besides biological factors, habitat destruction and climate change, one of the main drivers is anthropogenic pollution [1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]. Anthropogenic pollutants such as pesticides, heavy metals, or fine airborne particles from agricultural or industrial sources can have lethal or sublethal toxic effects on insects [1, 3, 4, 7]. Sublethal health effects can translate into more dramatic effects, such as increasing susceptibility to disease [4, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13] or decreasing tolerance to other factors stresses, such as land use intensification [14, 15, 16, 17]. Additionally, these pollutants are known to negatively affect learning abilities and/or reduce activity levels [18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24], which can further compromise insects [19 , 21, 25].
Not surprisingly, insect decline also affects social insects, including important pollinators such as wild social bees and honey bees [6, 26, 27]. Social Hymenoptera, such as bees, ants and wasps, are characterized by the presence of overlapping generations within the colony, the care of the brood and the reproductive division of labor, whereby in most cases , only one or only a few females reproduce, i.e. , the queen(s) and other females, contribute to brood rearing as workers .
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In social Hymenoptera, the effects of pollutants can therefore manifest themselves at the level of the individual, but also of the colony. Individual foraging workers confronted with pollutants in their environment absorb these pollutants into their bodies (at least in their gut), but also distribute them within the colony during food transfer. The larvae, in particular, are helpless and must be fed by adult workers. The lifespan of workers is generally short compared to that of the queen and the colony as a whole, with its perennial life cycle, as for example in bees or ants. The sublethal effects of pollutants can be difficult to measure in individuals. However, these subtle effects at the individual level can be amplified over time, leading to long-term negative effects on colony fitness [19, 29, 30]. For example, pollutants embedded in stored food or nest materials, including beeswax, can accumulate over time [31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40], resulting in constant exposure to pollutants of the larvae. and the adults of the new generations of workers, as well as the gendered [37, 41, 42]. In this way, even subtle effects on individuals can have quite extreme negative consequences for colonies of social insects, threatening their existence [21, 29, 30, 43].
As social Wasps are central location foragers constantly exploiting resources in the vicinity of their nest, high local levels of pollutants can lead to chronic exposure. The foraging areas of social Hymenoptera such as honey bees or bumblebees tend to be much larger than those of the solitary bees or solitary wasps that provide their offspring [44, 45]. If polluted food spots can be avoided by social bees, it may make them less vulnerable to pollutants. Due to their considerably shorter foraging distances, we expect solitary Wasps [46, 47] to be more prone to pollution. This is especially the case in ants, where foraging distances are considerably shorter, as only food sources within walking distance can be exploited. Variation in life-history strategies in honey bees, bumblebees, and solitary bees could be another factor defining the strength of pollutant-induced effects. While in bees, food can be detoxified before being fed to the queen, queen bumblebees and solitary bees come into direct contact with pollutants, since they go foraging themselves . Additionally, social species have broader resource utilization and may be able to avoid particularly polluted food sources .
Thus, effects are likely to vary across taxa due to differences in foraging range, foraging mode, and the type of food a species collects. The same aspects determining pollutant encounter rate could also define host-pathogen interactions and pathogen encounter rate [50, 51, 52, 53]. The foraging flights of bees and wasps are much more energetically demanding than foraging on foot . However, for wasps and ants that forage at a higher trophic level than social bees, the bioaccumulation of pollutants along the food chain could be an important factor compromising their health . Therefore, the degree of exposure to pollutants is, on the one hand, strongly linked to the life history and nutritional ecology of social Hymenoptera, and will, on the other hand, affect the energy requirements and the rate metabolism of individuals and the colony as a whole.
Despite the dramatic global decline in the abundance and richness of insect species [1, 2, 3], the massive losses of honey bee colonies and the potential decline of wild bees as pollinators have attracted attention. attention of scientists and the public [6, 55, 56, 57, 58]. Environmental pollution is considered to be one of the main drivers of insect (social) decline. Among pollutants, pesticides used in agriculture have received the most attention because pollinators visit cultivated plants or wildflowers growing near arable fields and encounter these chemicals when collecting food (Figure 1) [59, 60, 61, 62]. Heavy metals constitute a second group of pollutants that can threaten social insects in agricultural regions, but also in more urbanized or industrial areas [31, 35, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71 ]. Heavy metals are present in soils (naturally or through pollution) and can potentially lead to contamination of social insect nests, or they can move up the food chain (Figure 2). Plants can absorb heavy metals which, in turn, are ingested by social bees collecting pollen and nectar. In addition, other herbivorous insects that serve as prey for social wasps can accumulate these pollutants, which can lead to increased exposure of these predatory wasps to heavy metals [35, 36, 47, 63, 65, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80]. Pesticides (or their residues) and heavy metals, as well as other pollutants from combustion, traffic, agriculture, and coal mining, can also form or bind to fine particles [ 66, 81,