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Shil Words 5 Letters
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Arthur H. R. Rosa *, Matthews B. E. Silva, Marcos F. C. Campos, Renato A. S. Santana, Welbert A. Rodriguez, Lenin M. F. Morais and Seleme I. Selem Jr.
Exploring Chemical, Mechanical, And Electrical Functionalities Of Binders For Advanced Energy Storage Devices
Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antonio Carlos 6627, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, MG, Brazil
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 30 September 2018 / Published: 6 October 2018
In this work, a new real-time simulation method is designed for nonlinear control techniques applied to power converters. We propose two different implementations: in the first (Single Hardware in The Loop: SHIL), both the model and control laws are included in a single Digital Signal Processor (DSP), and in the second approach (Double Hardware in The Loop: DHIL), the equations are loaded in different embedded systems. With this method, linear and nonlinear control techniques can be designed and compared in fast and inexpensive real-time realization of the proposed systems, suitable for students and engineers interested in learning and validating the performance of converters. This method can be applied to buck, boost, buck-boost, flyback, SEPIC, and 3-phase AC-DC boost converters, showing that new and high-performance embedded systems can evaluate different nonlinear controllers. The approach is performed using Matlab-Simulink on Texas Instruments Digital Signal Processors (TI-DSPs). The main objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of proposed real-time implementations without using expensive HIL systems such as Opal-RT and Typhoon-HL.
Real-time simulation; Power transformers; Non-linear control; Embedded Systems; Advanced programming; shill DHIL real-time simulation; Power transformers; Non-linear control; Embedded Systems; Advanced programming; shill DHIL
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The rapid advancement of digital and embedded systems has enabled the use of such systems in various applications . Although still little explored, one of these utilities includes hardware in the loop (HIL) simulations, in which both software and hardware are tested.
Real-time simulation (RTS) methods are a viable way to verify the performance of controllers and the stability of dynamic systems. OPAL-RT Technologies Inc. (Montreal, QC, Canada) such as commercial platforms equipped with sophisticated and expensive test bench, . Examples of digital real-time simulator (DRTS) applications that obtain high accuracy results are: TYPHON HIL , OPAL-RT , dSPACE  and RTDS .
On the other hand, a real-time simulation platform with less complexity than previously mentioned is desirable. In these terms, the employment of powerful computational tools does not justify the increased cost. Along these lines, a Processor in the Loop (PIL) applying the Simcoder platform of PSIM (Power System Simulator) is designed in , where F28335 Texas Instruments micro-controller is used to embed PFC (Power Factor Correction) and motor through software simulation. Drive circuits. Also, Rev. Fr.  presents a simple and interesting real-time implementation.
In view of these concerns, an RTS-based approach is proposed to verify the dynamics of power converters and validate the stability of their implemented control equations. This approach is made in such a way as to justify the computational power required to simulate elementary converters in real time, with low cost and time consumption. In the proposed Single Hardware in the Loop (SHIL), the control and state equations implemented in the Matlab/Simulink development environment are directly embedded in the C2000 F28377 Texas Instruments device through Simulink Coder and Embedded Coder packages. In double hardware in the loop (DHIL), as illustrated in Figure 1, the equations are embedded in typical DSPs. In the first DSP, a converter model is embedded (usually described by state-space equations or a switched model). In the second DSP, the duty cycle D equation for the input control of the switch is calculated.
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As illustrated in Figure 1, this work method is different from the concepts found in the literature regarding the implementation of Software in the Loop (SIL), Processor in the Loop (PIL)  and HIL . That’s why we call it “single hardware in the loop” (SHIL), because it has hybrid properties of these methods. Given this, we can easily test the control law without the need for a desktop computer and a real plant. Additionally, data transfer occurs directly and quickly when both the sample and control are included in the same DSP or different DSPs.
The main objective of this work is to validate nonlinear control laws in embedded systems using the proposed real-time simulation methods. When dealing with unconventional control equations the following question appears: Are these new methods feasible? To achieve this goal, it is not necessary to use complex models, because such models are replaced by real prototypes. In fact, it is worth highlighting here that controllers are usually handled by embedded systems in power electronics applications. It is a predisposing tendency.
Therefore, this work presents two different RTS approaches, where the model and control equations are implemented on DSP processors. The models and governing equations are described in Section 2 and Appendix A. The proposed SHIL and DHIL simulation methods and their experimental results are described in Section 3. Moreover, an additional contribution of this work is the comparison of non-linear control techniques (SFL, PBC and IDAPBC) applied to DC power converters. In total, three variables models (Table 1) and nine control equations (Table 2) were validated using the proposed methods. Finally, results and conclusions are presented in Section 4 and Section 5.
Basic power converters such as boost, buck, and buck-boost (shown in Figure 2) are typical switching-mode nonlinear systems that typically adopt a conventional linear control approach. These classic linear controllers, as mentioned in , exhibit some natural inhomogeneities (for example, the intrinsic non-minimum phase characteristic related in ) and cannot satisfy the meaningful prerequisites of high performance control. An inductor is positioned at the input to reduce spikes in the boost grid voltage, so is recommended for power factor (PFC) systems. A buck-boost inverts the polarity of the output voltage signal with respect to the input signal and allows for up-down output voltages. Note that state variables relate to energy storage elements, ie, capacitors and inductors.
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In this context, the demand for new regulators to tackle this problem is increasing. Some nonlinear methods, such as SFL [11, 12], PBC [13, 14], IDA-PBC [15, 16, 17], fuzzy logic control , backstepping method , predictive control , piecewise affine (PWA)  and iterative control  have been designed and implemented in power converters.
This section presents the relevant models and governing equations used in this work, which were collected in the literature review [10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17]. Note in Figure 3, the Euler Lagrange (EL) is the basic model for finding others. With the EL model, the PBC control equations are derived. But SFL control uses model description in state space (SS). In turn, IDA-PBC control requires a port-controlled Hamiltonian (PCH) model system. Note that each model is associated with a control strategy. Although having specific mathematical and physical definitions, Euler-Lagrange and Hamiltonian models are mathematically similar to models described in state space. It should be noted that the controllers are designed for continuous mode operation .
As case studies, the control methods used in this work are SFL, PBC and IDA-PBC. A study and comparison of these methods is presented in . SFL control uses state space equations. PBC and IDAPBC include passive properties applying Lagrangian and Hamiltonian methods, respectively. It should be noted that nonlinear control methods are widely discussed in the current literature. However, another important trend in design