Spartan King Who Fought Pyrrhus 5 Letters
Spartan King Who Fought Pyrrhus 5 Letters – A marble bust of Pyrrhus from the Villa of the Papyri at the Roman site of Herculaneum, now in the National Archaeological Museum of Naples, Italy
Pyrrhus (/ˈpɪrəs/; Greek: Πύρρος Pýrrhos; 319/318–272 BC) was a Greek king and statesman of the Hellenistic period.
Spartan King Who Fought Pyrrhus 5 Letters
) of Epirus. He was one of the strongest enemies of early Rome, and was considered one of the greatest antiquities.
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Many of his victorious battles resulted in unacceptably heavy losses, from which the term “Pyrrhic victory” was coined.
Pyrrhus became king of Epirus in 306 BC. at the age of 13, but Cassander was expelled four years later. He saw action during the Diadochi Wars and regained his throne in 297 BC. supported by Ptolemy I Soter. During the war known as the Pyrrhic War, Pyrrhus fought in Rome at the behest of Tartum, scoring costly victories at Heraclea and Asculum. He took possession of Sicily from Carthage but was soon driven out, and lost all his gains in Italy after the Battle of Bevtum in 275 BC.
Pyrrhus seized the Macedonian throne from Antigonus II Gonatas in 274 BC. and he invaded the Peloponnese in 272 BC. The Epirot attack on Sparta was thwarted, however, and Pyrrhus was killed during a street battle in Argos.
The Latin Pyrrhus derives from the Greek Pyrrhos (/ˈpɪrəs/; Greek: Πύρρος), meaning redhaired, redheaded or red-colored.
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Pyrrhos was also used as an alternate name for Neoptolemus, son of Achilles and the princess Deidamia in Homeric Greek mythology.
And Phthia, a Thessalian noblewoman, daughter of the Thessalonian chervil Mon. Aeacides was a cousin of Olympias, making Pyrrhus another cousin of Alexander the Great. He had two sisters: Deidamia and Troias. In the year 319/318 BC, Arrybas, the father of Aeacides and the ruler of Efiruis, died, leaving Epirus to the co-kings Aeacides and Neoptolemus.
Aeacides supported Olympias in his fight against Cassander and marched on Macedonia. In 317 BC, although Pyrrhus was only two years old, Olympias asked for the support of Aeacides again and marched on Macedonia a second time. Many of his soldiers did not like their service and mutinied. Aeacides dismissed these soldiers from his army, but as a result his army was too small to achieve anything. When the rebels came to Epirus they revolted against their absolute king and Aeacides was expelled. Cassander appointed one of his sons, Lyciscus, to act as a regiment for Neoptolemus who was still under age. In reality Epirus became a puppet kingdom of Cassander. Pyrrhus’ family fled north and took refuge with Glaukias of the Taulantians, one of the largest Illyrian tribes.
Cassander marched against Glaukias, defeated his army and captured Apollonia. Glaukias was forced to promise that he would not act against Cassander, but he refused to give up on Pyrrhus and his family.
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By 313 BC, Cassander was distracted by his war against Antigonus Monophthalmus, one of the most powerful Diadochi. Fearing an invasion from Asia Minor, where Antigonus was building his forces, he shifted his attention from the west to the east. Aeacides took advantage of the situation and returned to Epirus. It seems that he is popular again and he raised a big army. Cassander army under his brother Philip defeated Aeacides in two battles. Aeacides was wounded in the final battle and died soon after.
In 307 BC, Glaukias invaded Epirus and placed Pyrrhus on the throne. Pyrrhus was only eleven years old, so his guardians ruled in his stead until he came of age.
When he was resourceful he traveled to the court of Glaukias in Illyria to marry one of Glaukias’s sons. While he was in Illyria the Molosians rose in rebellion, drove out the supporters of Pyrrhus, and Neoptolemus returned to the throne. This time Glaukias could not help him.
Pyrrhus traveled to the Peloponnese and served his brother-in-law Demetrius Poliorcetes who had married his sister Deidamia, and was campaigning against Cassander in southern Greece.
How Pyrrhus Was Foiled By The Roman Churchill
In 302 BC, Demetrius brought his army to Asia Minor to support his father Antigonus Monophthalmus. Pyrrhus impressed Antigonus because he is said to have said that Pyrrhus would have been the greatest general of his time, if he had lived long.
Antigonus grew too powerful and the other successors, Seleucus, Lysimachus, Ptolemy and Cassander, united against him. Lysimachus and Seleucus, reinforced by Cassander’s two armies, had coordinated their forces in Asia Minor and marched on Antigonus. The two armies met at Ipsus in Phrygia. The Battle of Ipsus was the largest and most important battle of the Wars of the Successors. Pyrrhus probably fought with Demetrius on the right wing, a place of honor, and made a great display of bravery among the combatants. Despite these valiant efforts, Antigonus lost both the battle and his life. Demetrius, victorious on his wing, managed to escape with 9,000 m, and Pyrrhus continued to serve his brother-in-law as he began to rebuild Antigonus’ empire.
In 298 BC, Pyrrhus was a hostage of Alexandria, under the terms of the peace treaty made between Demetrius and Ptolemy I Soter. Then, he married Ptolemy I’s stepdaughter Antigone (daughter of Berice I of Egypt by her first husband Philip – respectively, Ptolemy I’s wife and a Macedonian noble). In 297 BC, Cassander died and Ptolemy, always looking for allies, decided to help restore Pyrrhus to his kingdom. He provided Pyrrhus with m and funds and brought him back to Epirus.
Pyrrhus returned to Epirus at the head of an army, but not willing to fight a civil war he agreed to rule Epirus together with Neoptolemus. Soon the two kings began to plot against each other. News was sent against his life to Pyrrhus and he decided to strike first. He invited his co-king to dinner and was murdered. The action does not seem to have been popular as it seems to have been aimed at the nobility of Epirus.
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In 295 BC, Pyrrhus moved the capital of his kingdom to Ambracia. In 292 BC, he went to war against his former ally and brother-in-law Demetrius by invading Thessaly while Demetrius was besieging Thebes. Demetrius answered immediately; he left the siege to his son Antigonus Gonatas and marched back north at the head of a large army.
While he was back in Epirus, Pyrrhus suffered another setback. His second wife, Lannasa, daughter of Agatocles of Syracuse, the self-proclaimed king of Sicily, abandoned him. She claimed that she, the daughter of a Greek king, could no longer bear to share her house with a barbarian woman. She fled to Corcyra with her dowry, offering it herself to Demetrius. He accepted, sailed to the island and took possession of both Corcyra and Lannasa. After returning his army to mainland Greece, Demetrius planned to invade Epirus. In 289 BC, he invaded Pyrrhus’ allies, the Aetolian League, hoping to neutralize them before invading Epirus. The Aetolians refused to fight and retreated into the hills. After raiding the Aetolian countryside, Demetrius left a strong force under his best general Pantauchus in Aetolia and marched on Epirus. Meanwhile, Pyrrhus had raised his army and was marching to the rescue of his Aetolian allies. The two armies, on different roads, passed each other and Demetrius began to plunder Epirus and Pyrrhus defeated Pantauchus in battle.
Pyrrhus had with him most of the army of Epirus, probably 20,000-25,000 m, while Pantauchus commanded only a detachment of Demetrius’s army of about 11,000 m. The fight was heavy, and according to the sources Pantauchus and Pyrrhus sought each other out. Pantauchus challenged Pyrrhus to single combat, and Pyrrhus accepted. After throwing spears at each other they fought out with swords. Pyrrhus was wounded, but instead he wounded his opponent twice, in the mouth and in the neck. Phantauchus’ bodyguards had to carry him away. Encouraged by the victory of their king, the Epirus resumed their attack and defeated the army of Pantauchus, and took 5,000 prisoners. The army honored Pyrrhus by giving him the surname ‘Eagle’. When Demetrius heard of Pyrrhus’ victory, he marched back to Macedonia. Pyrrhus released his prisoners and marched back to Epirus.
In 289 BC, Pyrrhus found that Demetrius was dangerously ill, invaded Macedonia. He intended only to raid and plunder, but as Demetrius was unable to lead his forces he did not oppose him but paid little heed. Pyrrhus went as far as the old Macedonian city, Aegae, before Demetrius was well enough to take the field. Since Demetrius commanded a superior force, Pyrrhus had no choice but to retreat.
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Demetrius, as despicable as Pyrrhus, intended to invade Asia and recover his father’s old lands. He first made peace with Pyrrhus giving him his possessions in Macedonia and capturing Corcyra and Leucas, he began to build a large army and a huge fleet.
Faced with that threat, the other Diadochi Lysimachus, Ptolemy, and Seleucus became allies against him. The three kings embassies to Pyrrhus trying to win him over to their side or at least get him to remain neutral. If the allies and Pyrrhus won