Words With Eoy 5 Letters

Words With Eoy 5 Letters – Part 3.4: Fluency Collaboration for Effective Educator Development, Accountability, and Reform Materials Needed: 3.4: References: Fluency Text to model fluent and non-fluent reading (Suggested: Wolf! by Becky Bloom) Timers Overhead projector or Smartboard showing diagrams Chart paper for participants to graph words correct per minute Red and blue markers for each participant. Handouts 3.4A: Fluency Standards 3.4B: Partner Reading Simulation In the previous parts of this CEM we learned how to teach children to crack the alphabetic code and decode words. We learned about how to support advanced phonics and word study through the study of morphemes and parts of speech. In this module, we will focus on the students who read slowly, word by word, and understand little. We need to teach these students to read fluently so that less of their attention is devoted to decoding the words and more effort is made to understand the meaning of the text. H325A120003

Differentiate instruction Use assessment data to inform instruction; form groups; and monitor progress Incorporate standards and evidence-based practices (EBP) In addition to learning about the big ideas and answering the big ideas questions, after you complete this module, you will be able to: (1) design and evaluate instruction for all students, including those at risk for reading difficulties; (2) differentiate instruction for each student; (3) use assessment data to inform your instruction, form groups, and monitor student progress and (4) incorporate state standards and evidence-based practices (EBPs).

Words With Eoy 5 Letters

Words With Eoy 5 Letters

3 Acknowledgments Much of the information in this streaming presentation was adapted from: Texas Fourth Grade Teacher Reading Academy, Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts at the University of Texas at Austin, ©University of Texas System/TEA And from the work by : Jan Hasbrouck, Ph.D., Educational Consultant Some of the slides we will discuss today are adapted from the Texas Fourth Grade Teacher Reading Academy of the Vaughn Gross Center for Reading and Language Arts at the University of Texas in Austin. Thanks also to Dr. Jan Hasbrouck for her work in this area and her willingness to share her research with us.

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4 Stroop Test Let’s experience how some students read, consciously thinking about each word. Look at the slide (Stroop, 1935). When I say, “Go,” say the colors out loud as you see them. For example, the first three colors are red, gray and purple. Use your best reading. You can start, all reading aloud in whispers, as quickly as possible. Allow the participants to read three to four lines of colors. It took a while to figure that out, didn’t it? Even though you knew the colors and the words, you had to focus on saying the color and not reading the word. It wasn’t automatic, and it could be tiring! Now try to read the words and ignore the color. Pause. Which was easier? Yes, reading the words was easier. Why? Find out some comments. Yes, you could read the words automatically. The first time you had to say the color rather than read the word, your mind automatically determined the semantic meaning of the word and then had to override this first impression. Such a process is hardly automatic. I wanted you to experience how difficult it is to read when you cannot read with automaticity and fluency.

5 Common Core Standards Read with sufficient accuracy and fluency to support comprehension. Read a level text with purpose and understanding. Read grade-level text orally with accuracy, appropriate speed, and expression on consecutive readings. Use context to confirm or self-correct word recognition and understanding, rereading as needed. Fluent reading of connected text is expected of students, generally by the second semester of first grade or when students can read at least 40 words per minute. These are the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for Grades 1-5. Note letter b, which is in bold. This is the generally accepted definition of reading fluency: reading with accuracy, appropriate speed and prosody, or expression, leading to comprehension or understanding (letter a). According to author and researcher Jan Hasbrouck, “Reading fluency can be defined as reasonably accurate reading (not perfect with zero errors, but within a range of about 95%-99% accuracy), done at a minimum speed that is appropriate to the purpose. of the task, with appropriate prosody that leads to successful comprehension. Reading fluency is accurate reading at minimal speed with appropriate prosody that leads to successful comprehension.” So, what does “done at a minimum speed appropriate to the purpose of the task” mean? Turn to your partner and discuss for 30 seconds. Pause for discussion. Then, ask for answers. Lead candidates to the conclusion that people read at different speeds, depending on the text. The more difficult or dull the text, the slower you read. For example, one would probably read a complex physics text more slowly than a romance novel.

6 Fluency Terms Automaticity is the fast, effortless and accurate reading of words. Prosody is reading expressively, pausing for punctuation and phrasing appropriately. Read the first definition on the slide. Competent readers read with automaticity—they don’t have to stop to sound out each word. Read the second definition on the slide. Prosody does not mean reading as fast as you can. Show reading very quickly without pauses. Rather, it means reading quickly, effortlessly and expressively; pause for punctuation; and properly wording. Reading with prosody sounds similar to speaking. Read the same text again, appropriately. When students read with prosody, they are more likely to understand what they are reading. Hasbrouck & Hougen, 2012

7 Fluency Engages . . . Reading with automaticity, accuracy and prosody. Phonological, orthographic, and morphological knowledge of letters, letter patterns, and words. Effective and efficient processing of this information in connected text. Students who read fluently demonstrate an understanding of phonological, orthographic (spelling), and morphological knowledge at the letter and word levels. When students read fluently, they can process this information effectively and efficiently. Hasbrouck & Hougen, 2012; O’Connor, 2014

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8 Fluency Must be taught from the beginning of the reading acquisition process Has implications for assessment, intervention, and prevention of reading difficulty. Reading fluency must be modeled and taught from the beginning. Instruction in reading expression can help prevent and resolve other reading difficulties, and measures of fluency can be used as a predictive assessment of future reading problems. Please note that fluency instruction does not involve reading connected text and measuring words read per minute until after students have learned to decode a large number of words. However, fluency instruction can begin when students learn letter names and sounds, then read individual words. Hasbrouck, 2010; National Reading Panel Report, 2000; National Research Council, 1998; Wolf et al., 2000;

The ultimate goal of fluency is NOT to read as fast as possible but to learn to read with automaticity so that one can better understand what one is reading. When reading becomes automatic and easy, students are motivated to read more for pleasure and for information.

Lack of . . . Background knowledge Language base Metacognitive skills Ability to organize content and context Decoding skills Fluency Many factors can cause some students to have difficulty understanding what they read. Read this slide to yourself and be prepared to discuss what you think is the cause of one of your students’ comprehension difficulties. Pause to give participants time to read the slide. What comments and observations can you offer about your students’ comprehension difficulties? Leave at least three comments. Turn to your partner and discuss why you think reading fluency problems can cause comprehension difficulties. Pause for 30 seconds. Find out some comments. Point out that a lack of metacognitive skills is related to students’ inability to recognize when they are having difficulty understanding. Often, they just keep reading rather than stopping to find out what is causing their problems with comprehension. You see, fluency is one cause of reading difficulties. It is also the result of the lack of the other skills. Dr. Hasbrouck often describes fluidity as a thermometer. A thermometer can measure your temperature and tell you that something is wrong with your body, but it does not tell you what is causing the temperature to rise. To find out the cause, other diagnostic tests must be administered. Pikulski & Chard, 2005

Words With Eoy 5 Letters

DON’T focus on decoding Read effortlessly Enjoy reading Yes, fluency is important! Please read the slide to see if your answers about the relationship between fluency and comprehension match what reading researchers have discovered. Allow time for the participants to read the slide silently. Note that good readers do not focus on decoding because they can decode with automaticity. They decode accurately, and they have learned to recognize words quickly, not to read letter by letter. They can think about the meaning of the words and use their cognitive resources to understand the text.

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12 As you can see, fluency links word recognition skills to the ability to understand text. If the flow link is missing or weak, understanding suffers.

Sentence reading Rereading decipherable and

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