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Blue Things 5 Letters – Chromostereopsis is a visual illusion in which the impression of depth is conveyed by two-dimensional color images, usually red-blue or red-green, but can also be perceived in red-gray or blue-gray.
Such illusions have been reported on more than one occasion and have usually been attributed to some form of chromatic aberration.
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Chromatic aberration occurs because light is refracted differently depending on its wavelength, causing some light rays to converge before others in the eye (longitudinal chromatic aberration or LCA) and/or end up in different places in the two eyes when viewed through binoculars. (transverse chromatic aberration or TCA).
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Chromostereopsis is usually observed using a target with red and blue bands and an achromatic background. Positive chromostereopsis is shown when red bands are perceived in front of blue, while negative chromostereopsis is shown when red bands are perceived behind blue.
Several models have been proposed to explain this effect, which is often attributed to longitudinal and/or transverse chromatic aberrations.
However, straightforward work attributes most of the stereo effect to transverse chromatic aberrations along with cortical factors.
It has been suggested that chromostereopsis may have an evolutionary influence on the development of eyespots in certain species of butterflies.
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The effect may appear much more pronounced when viewing suitable images with myopia correcting glasses on, and the effect is almost completely gone when the glasses are removed.
It is most commonly found in stained glass, historically artists were aware of this effect and used it to enhance or distance the perspectives of images.
More than two centuries ago, the effect of color depth perception was first noted by Goethe in his Farblehre (Theory of Colors), where he identified blue as a receding color and yellow/red as a protruding color. He stated that “just as we see the high sky, the distant mountains blue, so the blue field seems to recede… (also) One can look at a perfectly yellow/red field where the color seems to be impaled into the organ.”
This fomon, now called chromostereopsia or the stereoptic effect, explains the visual science of this color depth effect and has many implications for art, media, evolution, as well as our daily lives, how we perceive colors and objects.
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Although Goethe did not provide any scientific reasoning for his observations, in the late 1960s Bruecke and Donders first proposed that the chromostereoptic effect was due to adaptive perception, since the optics of the eye are not achromatic and red objects require more accommodation to focus on the retina. . This notion of accommodation could be translated into a perception of distance. However, Donders and Bruecke initially omitted the necessity of binocular observation in their theory to produce chromostereopsis. Later, in a departure from accommodation, Bruecke proposed that chromatic aberration and temporal off-axis effects of the pupil could explain the chromostereoptic effect. This hypothesis still underlies our everyday understanding of chromostereopsia.
Over the years, art analysis has provided much evidence for the chromostereoptic effect, but until about thirty years ago, little was known about the neurological, anatomical, and/or physiological explanation for phoma. For example, in 1958 the Dutch art historian De Wilde noted that in his analysis of Cubist painter Leo Gestel’s The Poet Rsburg, instead of using the usual graduated depth marks, “If you put violet next to yellow or gr next to orange, violet and juxtaposition recede. In general, warm colors come to the fore and cool colors recede.”
The binocular nature of chromostereopsia was discovered by Bruecke and is due to the position of the fovea in relation to the optic axis. The fovea is located on the short optical axis, so the visual axis passes through the cornea with a horizontal contraction of the nose, which means that the average ray associated with the fovea must undergo prismatic deviation and is therefore subject to chromatic dispersion. Prismatic deviation is in opposite directions in each eye, resulting in opposite color shifts, resulting in a change in stereo depth between red and blue objects. The extrinsic foveal receptive system, along with the Stiles-Crawford effect, works in opposite directions to each other and roughly cancels out, providing another explanation for why subjects can display color stereoscopy “against the rule” (opposite of expected results).
An image that can have four different depth layers. From close to far: red, yellow, green and blue.
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Evidence of the stereotypic effect is often quite easy to see. For example, when red and blue are seen side by side in a dark environment, most people will see red “floating” against blue. However, this is not true for everyone, as some see the opposite and others see no effect. This is the same effect that both Goethe and De Wilde indicated in their remarks. While most people will see red as “floating” against blue, others experience the opposite effect where they see blue floating against red, or no depth effect at all. Although this change may seem to discredit chromostereopsia, it does not, and, as originally proposed by Einthow, may be explained by an increased effect and subsequent rotation in blocking the extremity of the pupil relative to the optical axis.
The diverse nature of the chromostereoptic effect is that the color depth effect is closely related to perceptual and optical factors. In other words, neither optical nor perceptual factors can be so insolated as to explain chromostereopsia. This multifactorial component of chromostereopsia offers one explanation for why exposure to the same visual cues varies in different people.
Another interesting reverse effect in 1928. observed Verhoeff, when red bars were perceived as distant and blue bars as protruding when the bars were paired on a white background rather than a black one. Verhoeff proposed that this paradoxical change could be understood in terms of pupil contours (see: Illusory contours). The pupil has lines of constant luminance efficiency, each successive line representing a 25% decrease in efficiency. Around 1998 Winn and colleagues confirmed Verhoeff’s interpretation of this change by performing experiments with different colors.
Other studies also show that changes in edge contrast can cause changes in color depth when the background is black to white.
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In 1933 Stiles and Crawford discovered that the sensitivity of the fovea to light is very different for rays coming through the center of the pupil and for rays coming from its peripheral regions. They observed that the conventional “incity multiplied by aperture” rule did not apply to foveal vision, and that the rays entering the eye through the peripheral regions of the pupil were about five times smaller. This effect is now known as the Stiles-Crawford effect and also affects the inverse chromostereoptic effect.
In 1885 Eintov proposed a theory that states: “Fomona (chromostereopsis) arises from the difference in chromatic magnification, because, for example, blue rays are refracted by the medium of the eye more than red, their foci are not only in different. levels (chromatic aberration), but make different angles with the optical axis and thus stimulate different points. It follows that individuals with temporarily dilated pupils see red before blue, whereas with nasal pupils the relief is reversed.”
Eintov first explained chromatic aberration in the eye, which means that the eye will not focus all colors at once. Depending on the wavelength, the focal point in the eye varies. He concluded that the reason people see red versus blue is that light with different wavelengths is projected onto different parts of the retina. When viewed through binoculars, a disproportion is created, causing the perception of depth. Because red is temporarily in focus, it appears to be in the foreground. However, this phonon is not visible during monocular vision.
However, Bruecke objected to Eintow’s theory, arguing that not all people see red closer than blue. Eintovs explained that this negative chromostereopsia is probably due to the extra-positioned pupils, as moving the pupil can change the focus point of light wavelengths in the eye. Negative chromostereopsia was further investigated by All and Rubin, who suggested that changing the angle between the central center of the pupil and the visual axis could change the direction of chromostereopsia. If the central part of the pupil is temporally relative to the visual axis, red will be closer. The opposite effect is observed when the central diameter of the pupil is through the nose to the visual axis.
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Direct research has attempted to extend the basis of traditional chromostereoptic theory, including the work of Stiles and Crawford. in 1933 Stiles and Crawford accidentally discovered that the sensitivity of light to rays coming through the cter differed from that coming from the peripheral regions of the eye. The efficiency of the rays is lower when the rays pass through the peripheral region, because the shape of the cone cells that collect the incident quanta is different from the cone receptors.