Desert Plant 5 Letters
Desert Plant 5 Letters – A natural biostimulant reduces the effects of salinity stress in pepper and enhances gene expression by rebalancing antioxidants, ions and phytohormones.
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Desert Plant 5 Letters
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Morphology and physiology of branch-branch junctions in Opuntia ficus-indica and Cylindropontia bigelovii: a comparative study supported by mechanical tissue quantification
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By Max D. Mylo 1, 2, * , Linnea Hesse 1, 2, Tom Masselter 1, Jochen Leupold 3, Kathrin Drozella 4, Thomas Speck 1, 2, 5 and Olga Speck 1, 2
Cluster of Excellence livMatS @ FIT—Freiburg Center for Interactive Materials and Bioinspired Technologies, University of Freiburg, Georgs-Köhler-Allee 105, D-79110 Freiburg, Germany
Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Medical Physics, Medical Center—University of Freiburg, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Kilianstrasse 5a, D-79106 Freiburg, Germany
Received: 2 September 2021 / Revised: 6 October 2021 / Accepted: 21 October 2021 / Published: 27 October 2021
St Nicholas [serial] . Double Acrostic. The Initials And Finals Name Two Cities In Europe.1. A Domestic Animal. 2. A Bitter Plant. 3. A Necessary Of Life.4. A Coloring Matter. 5. A
Opuntioideae includes the iconic cacti whose lateral branching connections are interesting objects from a mechanistic point of view. We compared Opuntia ficus-indica, which has stable branch connections, with Cylindropuntia bigelovii, whose lateral branches are obliterated under slight mechanical stress. To determine the underlying structure and mechanical properties of these stable versus shedding cacti junctions, we conducted magnetic resonance imaging, morphometric and anatomical analysis of branches, and tensile testing of individual tissues. The comparison revealed differences in geometry, shape and material properties as follows: (i) a more pronounced tapering of the cross-sectional area towards the junctions c. Bigelowie favors the isolation of young branches (ii) Old branches of O. ficus-indica primarily develop collar-shaped periderm tissue, around branch-branch junctions. This secondary coverage mechanically stiffens the dermal tissue, providing a threefold increase in strength and a tenfold increase in elastic modulus compared to the epidermis. (iii) Approximately 200-fold higher elastic modulus of the vascular bundles of O. ficus-indica is a prerequisite for stable attachment of its young branches. Our results, for both biological and engineered materials systems, provide important insights into the geometric properties and mechanical properties of branching joints that are either stable or easily dissociable.
Opuntioideae; abscission; cacti; magnetic resonance imaging; formation of periderm; Tissue tensile test Opuntioideae; abscission; cacti; magnetic resonance imaging; formation of periderm; Tissue tensile test
The plant family Cactaceae has fascinated researchers for centuries with its succulent growth forms and adaptation to habitats with little or only seasonal water. Cacti vary greatly in their outward appearance; Species with unbranched to strongly branched columnar, tree-like, creeping, epiphytic and climbing habits are found . However, they are united by xerophytic adaptations such as succulence, absence or early extinction of leaves (except Pereskioideae) and extensive but shallow root systems [1, 2]. Within Cactaceae, Opuntioideae represents the second largest subfamily with over 300 species .
A notable feature of the Opuntioideae is the external geometry of their jointed branches, which is a characteristic and name-giving feature of their subspecies. Opuntieae, also known as Platyopuntias, grow flat branches called cladodes, whereas Cylindropuntia have almost cylindrical, radially symmetrical branches called joints . For simplicity, we will refer to these structures as branches of both tribes. Physiologically, most species of Opuntioideae are characterized by a dense, multiseriate hypodermis, which contains crystalline inclusions and is approximately twice as dense as that of species of Opuntieae in Cylindropontiae . Additionally, a thick palisade cortex is common, which, however, is not as distinct as in the related subfamily Cactoidea . Mucilage cells or canals with intracellular secretions are often present, the latter especially in flat-branched species [6, 7, 8]. The composition of water-conducting tissues of Opuntioideae varies considerably among its species. In addition to vessels and fibers, water-containing and more flexible wide-band tracheids can often be found in vascular bundles [4, 9, 10]. A dimorphism occurs in some species where the wide-band tracheid develops initially, and then the cambium changes its derivatives and develops vessels, parenchyma and/or fibers at a later stage .
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Opuntioideae are further distinguished by their mode of propagation: the main mode of reproduction in most species is sexual via seed, e.g., Opuntia ficus-indica (hereafter: O. ficus-indica), known for its edible prickly pears. Results . However, some species reproduce mainly vegetatively [12, 13] or combine sexual and asexual reproduction [12, 14, 15]. Asexual reproduction is mainly found in Cylindropontiae species. Lateral branches of Cylindropontia bigelowi (hereafter: C. bigelowi), for example, easily fall off or adhere to the skin or fur of vertebrates (via their dorsal spines), are carried, take root, and grow into new, genetically identical individuals [ 2]. Nevertheless, this reproductive mode can also be found in the genus Opuntia [11, 16]. An enzymatic effect on this process of branching in cacti has not yet been described. According to Addicott , abscission, that is, the shedding of plant organs from the remains of the plant body, can be the result of purely mechanical forces (eg, their dead weight or transient organisms), as in the illustrated example of C. bigelovii.
Regardless of their variable external morphology, internal branching structures within Opuntioideae are similar and characterized by a net-like arrangement of vascular bundles [ 12 ]. Another common feature is that junctions between two (lateral) branches have a much smaller cross-sectional area than the branches themselves, making them the mechanical weak point of the plant [18, 19]. Bending tests for the mechanical measurement of these branch-branch connections have been conducted for different species: branches of O. ficus-indica experience much less deflection under the same applied load than their hybrid O. occidentalis , which is its vegetative propagation through shed branches. Also recognized for Older Opuntia junctions are generally more stable than younger ones, as revealed by an increasing stiffness gradient from apical/lateral to more basal junctions . Similar bending tests on four species of Cylindropontia showed that C. Bigelowy junctions require a minimum energy per junction unit to lead to failure. At the same time, their junctions are the strongest (but also the most fragile) of all tested species. In addition, the rooting capacity of shade branches c. The highest for bigelovii, which is a characteristic of successful vegetative propagation .
Although important contributions to the understanding of mechanics under bending loads and the internal structure and physiology of these connections have been published in various columnar cacti [22, 23], no three-dimensional visualization of tissue distribution is available in Opuntioideae. Literature Furthermore, information on the mechanical properties of tissues involved in the branch junction component system has so far only been available in dry conditions [24, 25, 26, 27].
The aim of this study was to find answers to the following question: “What are the most influencing factors leading to different mechanical behavior of branch-branch junctions in Opuntioideae?” For this purpose, we paradigmatically analyzed O. ficus-indica, which is characterized by its stable conjugation and which reproduces primarily sexually through fruits/seeds. In addition, we c. Bigelovii are selected, known for their abscission of lateral branches, which often leads to plant propagation through branches. In this study, we addressed the following three main aspects: (i) quantitative comparison of the geometry, size and shape of junctions and lateral branches; (ii) microscopic imaging and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of entire branch sites to identify involved tissues and visualize their 3D spatial arrangement; and (iii) tensile tests on fresh skin tissue and