Instruments With 4 Letters
Instruments With 4 Letters – (a chordophone in the Hornbostel–Sachs classification of instruments), usually has 11 strings combined into six classes, but some models have five or four classes, with 10 or 13 strings respectively li.
Similar tools have been used in the Middle East, North Africa (especially Maghreb, Egypt and Somalia), and Ctral Asia for thousands of years, including Mesopotamia, Egypt, Caucasus, Levant, anatolian Greeks, Albania and Bulgaria; There may be prehistoric antecedts of the lute.
Instruments With 4 Letters
The oud, as a key difference with the western lute, has no frets and a small neck. It is the direct successor of the Persian Barbat lute.
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The earliest description of the “modern” oud was given by the 11th-ctury musician, singer and author Al-Hasan Ibn al-Haytham (
965–1040) in his compdium on music Ḥāwī al-Funūn wa Salwat al-Maḥzūn. The first complete knowledge of ‛ūd and its constructions is found in the letter Risāla fī-l-Luḥūn wa-n-Nagham by the 9th-ctury philosopher of the Arabs Yaʻqūb ibn Isḥāq al-Kindī.
[and the] lgth [of ‛ūd] will be: thirty-six hand-jointed fingers-with good thick fingers-and all will be worth three ashbār. And its depth sev and a half inches. And the measure of the width of the bridge with the rest behind: six inches. There remains the lgth of the strings: thirty inches and of these strings take the place of dividing and dividing, because it is the voice [or “spoken”] lgth. This is why the width should be [of] five inches because it is half of the lgth. As for the depth, sev inches and a half and this is half of the width and a quarter of the lgth [of the string]. And the neck should be a third of the lgth [of the speaking string] and it is: t inches. Remaining vibrating body: twenty inches. And that the back (soundbox) should be well balanced and its “thinning” (kharţ) [must be done] at the neck, as if it is a round body drawn with a compass that has been cut in two to subtract two ‛ that
In Pre-Islamic Arabia and Mesopotamia, the string instrumts had only three strings, with a small box and a long neck without matching pegs. But during the Islamic era the music box was enlarged, a fourth string was added, and the base for the competition pegs (Bunjuk) or pegbox was added. In the first period of the (pre-Islamic) Arabian civilization, the stringed instrumts have four classes (a string a class-two-string came later), tuned in successive four. Curt Sachs says they are called (from lowest to highest) bamm, maṭlaṭ, maṭnā and zīr.
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“As early as the ninth ctury” a fifth string ḥād (“sharp”) is sometimes added “to make the range of two octaves complete”.
It is highest in sound, placed lowest in its position in relation to other strings. Modern tuning preserves the determination of the fourth, as well as the connection (lowest or highest class), which may vary according to regional preference or personal preference. . Sachs gives a tuning for the arrangement of five pairs of strings, d, e, a, d’, g’.
He is well known for founding a music school in Andalusia, one of the places where the oud or lute originated in Europe. Another theory of the fifth string was made by Al-Hasan Ibn al-Haytham in Ḥāwī al-Funūn wa Salwat al-Maḥzūn.
The Arabic: العود (al-ʿūd or oud) word dotes a thin piece similar to the shape of a straw. It may refer to the wooden plectrum traditionally used to play the oud, to the thin strips of wood used on the back, or to the wooden soundboard that distinguishes it from similar instrumts with leather muscle face body.
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Many theories have been proposed for the origin of the Arabic name oud. A non-academic writer expressed his belief that oud means “from wood” and “stick” in Arabic.
A Western scholar of Islamic music, Eckhard Neubauer, suggested that the oud may be an Arabic loan from the Persian word rōd or rūd, which means string.
Another scholar, archaeomusicologist Richard J. Dumbrill, suggests that rud comes from Sanskrit rudrī (रुद्री, meaning “string instrument”) and transferred to Arabic (a Semitic language) from a Semitic language.
Although the writers of the words about the meaning or history of the word may have access to the words, they are not English.
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However, another theory according to Semitic language scholars, is that the Arabic ʿoud is derived from the Syriac ʿoud-a, meaning “wooden stick” and “fire” – cognate to the Bible Hebrew ‘ūḏ, refers to a stick used to stir logs. a fire
The names of the different languages include Arabic: عود ʿūd or ʿoud (Arabic pronunciation: [ʕu(ː)d, ʢuːd], plural: ععواد aʿwād ), Armian: ود, Syriac ύ ϕ ϕ ԥd عد ud , Persian: بربط barbat (although barbat is a different lute instrument), Turkish: ud or ut,
Egyptian lute players with long-necked lutes. Fresco from the tomb of Nebamun, a nobleman in the 18th Dynasty of Ancit Egypt (c. 1350 BC)
Hellistic banquet scene from 1st century AD, Hadda, Gandhara. Short-necked, 2-stringed lute held by the player, right
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The full history of the development of the lute family has not been fully documented today, but archaeomusicologists have worked to piece together a lute family history. Organologist Curt Sachs distinguishes between “long-necked” and short-necked varieties.
Douglas Alton Smith says that the long neck should not be called a lute because it existed for at least a million years before the appearance of the short neck that evolved into what is now known as the lute.
Musicologist Richard Dumbrill today uses the word more categorically to talk about instrumts that existed millnia before the word “lute” was coined.
Dumbrill has documented more than 3000 years of iconographic evidce for lutes in Mesopotamia, in his book The Archaeomusicology of Ancit Near East. According to Dumbrill, the lute family includes instruments used in Mesopotamia before 3000 BC.
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3100 BC or earlier (now in the possession of the British Museum); the seal depicts on one side what is thought to be a woman playing a stick “lute”.
Like Sachs, Dumbrill sees lgth as a distinguishing feature of lutes, dividing Mesopotamian lutes into various long and short necks.
He focused on the long lutes of Mesopotamia, and similar neck chordophones that were produced all over the world: Greek, Egyptian (in the Middle Kingdom), Elamites, Hittite, Roman, Bulgar, Turkic, Indian, Chinese, Armian/Cilician, Canaanite/phoician, Israelite/Judean, and many other nations. His names of long lutes, pandura, panduri, tambur and tanbur.
The line of short-necked lutes was continued to the east of Mesopotamia, in Bactria and Gandhara, into the short, almond-shaped lute.
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Curt Sachs discussed the image of Gandharan lutes in art, where they were prested in a mix of “Northwest Indian art” under “strong Greek influences”.
The short neck in Gandhara artworks is “the ancestor of the Islamic, Sino-Japanese and European lute families.”
He describes Gandhara lutes as having a “pear-shaped body tapering to a short neck, a frontal stringholder, lateral pegs, and four or five strings.”
The oldest short-necked figures from the area that Sachs is aware of are “Persian figurines of the 8th century BC,” found in excavations at Suza, but he knows nothing to connect these to for Oud-related Gandharan art 8 cturies later.
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Bactria and Gandhara became part of the Sasanian Empire (224–651). In the Sasanians, a short almond like the lute from Bactria called barbat or barbud, which was created in the next Islamic world the oud or ud.
The oud is often paired with the Barbat, with the Ancit Greek Barbiton, giving the Barbat a low-pitched sound and the playing of Maqams in Middle Eastern and Byzantine music. When the Umayyads conquered Hispania in 711, they took their ud with them, to a country that already knew the tradition in the Romans, the pandura. An oud is described as being played by a sitting musician
In Qasr Amra of the Umayyad dynasty, one of the earliest depictions of the instrumt as played in early Islamic history.
During the 8th and 9th ctuies, many musicians and artists from all over the Islamic world flocked to Iberia.
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An important musician who studied under Ishaq al-Mawsili (d. 850) in Baghdad and was exiled to Andalusia before 833 AD. He taught and was credited with adding a fifth chord to his voice
By the 11th century, Muslim Iberia had become a center of production of goods. This product gradually spread to Provce, affected Frch troubadours and trouvères and evtally reached all Europe. When Europe developed the lute, the oud was still part of Arab music, and the wider Ottoman music as well, received many changes.
Although the main test of the short language is in western Europe, making different types of lutes, short luted Europe in the east as well; As early as the sixth ctury, the Bulgars brought the short-necked variety instrumt called Komuz to the Balkans.
According to Abū Ṭālib al-Mufaḍḍal (a-n-Naḥawī al-Lughawī) ibn Salma (9th ctury), who himself mentioned