Large Magnificent Building 6 Letters

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Large Magnificent Building 6 Letters

Large Magnificent Building 6 Letters

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Received: 30 May 2022 / Revised: 17 June 2022 / Accepted: 1 July 2022 / Published: 5 July 2022

Structural systems for tall buildings have undergone an evolutionary process. Rigid frames became popular in the first half of the 20th century but proved structurally inefficient beyond a certain height of tall buildings. The invention of tubular structures in the 1960s allowed buildings to be built higher with less material consumption. Due to the obstructive nature of the outer columns of the frame tubes and the bracings of the braced tubes, the core-outrigger system is accepted by the architects because it allows them to express the design of the facade freely. However, conventional tubular structures continued to be used for high-rise buildings to lower levels and later experienced a resurgence in modified forms. This and other advanced tubular forms in the cutting-edge structural system were developed later and continued to find applications in the modern era. This study provides a detailed narrative of different structural systems for high-rise buildings which is expected to help structural engineers and architects to select appropriate structural systems for high-rise buildings.

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Tall buildings; gravity load system; lateral load system; sliding walls; braces; rigid frame; structural system chart; tube structure; core-outrigger system; interior and exterior systems of tall buildings; gravity load system; lateral load system; sliding walls; braces; rigid frame; structural system chart; tube structure; core-outrigger system; interior and exterior systems

The main characteristic of all tall buildings is their verticality or the quality of their height. As buildings become taller, gravity loads and lateral loads increase. One of the most basic attributes, which makes high-rise buildings that continue to grow physically, is to provide structural efficiency, that is, the use of a skeletal framework. Early multi-story buildings were constructed using masonry with low compressive strength. Thus, the walls that carry the weight of the upper floor must be very thick and heavy, so that the building does not collapse under its own weight and becomes inefficient beyond a certain height.

William LeBaron Jenney’s invention and application of a skeletal metal frame system, albeit in a rudimentary form, for the 1885 Home Insurance Building in Chicago, generally recognized as the world’s first skyscraper, marked the beginning of a new era for tall buildings. building. Although the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) has defined “tall”, “supertall”, and “megatall” buildings, they have not been officially defined as “skyscrapers” [1]. Architectural historians have different opinions on what constitutes the first skyscraper [2]. Ali and Moon offered some important criteria to characterize tall buildings as skyscrapers and reaffirmed the Home Insurance Building as the first skyscraper in the world to meet these criteria [3]. The skeletal system reduces the need for large masonry masses to support tall buildings. Also allowed for a rudimentary curtain wall system and interior lighting. Then, the rigid moment-resisting frame (MRF) where the beam-to-column joints are rigidly connected, makes the building taller and lighter. However, taller and lighter frame buildings face new problems that require substantial structural materials to resist lateral wind forces and reduce the building’s sway. For high-rise buildings above 10 to 15 stories, lateral shaking due to wind forces becomes the dominant design criterion and the main concern of structural performance. In the absence of better structural systems, all modern tall buildings, including New York’s Woolworth Building in 1913, the Chrysler Building in 1930, and the Empire State Building in 1931, use MRF and wind bracing for lateral stability when necessary.

Large Magnificent Building 6 Letters

Before 1965, the design of structural systems for high-rise buildings was carried out using planar rigid frames by combining beams and columns to create a rigid structural box to resist wind loads. Fazlur R. Khan asked about this in 1961 and solved all problems of structural systems for tall buildings [4]. He realized that as buildings get taller, there is a “premium for height” to be paid due to lateral loads. The demand for structural systems increases dramatically, causing an exponential increase in the consumption of structural materials [5], pp. 40-41. Khan developed a revolutionary height-based chart for hierarchically ordered structural systems for tall steel and concrete buildings [6]. This paves the way for producing a plurality of structural systems and makes it possible to design and construct higher and more economical buildings. Many structural systems and modifications appeared on the scene to conquer the sky, defining a higher urban skyline. In addition to the tubular structure and various modified forms developed by Khan, he also described the “final structure” where he showed that maximum efficiency can be achieved by moving the outer column to the corner of the rectangular braced tube [7] .

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Since the 1980s, open-exterior high-rise buildings have been favored by architects over frame tubes and exterior braces. In the late 1980s and 1990s, and later, outriggers that connect the core and perimeter columns with a lot of space, creating a core-outrigger system, gained more acceptance among architects. Meanwhile, structural systems such as composite structures, diagrids, and tube system variations are also appearing or beginning to appear on the scene. Since around 2000, many other structural innovations have emerged to meet the challenge of increasing the height of supertall and megatall buildings.

The logic behind the development of structural systems lies in rational pragmatism, economy of material consumption, simplicity and elegance, and concern for construction. When discussing the progress of structural systems for tall buildings, metamorphosis can be observed between them in different periods. In the beginning, tall buildings were made of masonry construction occasionally supplemented with metal elements. This was followed by frame construction with the 10-story Home Insurance Building in 1885, marking the beginning of metal frame skyscraper structures. In 1903, the 15-story Ingalls Building in Cincinnati, Ohio, designed and built by A.O. Elzner, was the first reinforced concrete tall building. The first detailed study of the “Scale Effect” was conducted by Myron Goldsmith in his master’s thesis at the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), Chicago, in 1953, under the supervision of Mies van der Rohe [8]. A new era for higher and cost-effective buildings began when in 1961-1969, frame-shear interaction and, better, tube systems were developed by Fazlur R. Khan. During 1966–1969, an innovative high-base structural system chart for high-rise steel and concrete buildings was developed by Khan. The 38-story reinforced concrete Brunswick Building using the shear wall-frame interaction principle and the 42-story reinforced Dewitt-Chestnut Apartment building using the tube-frame concept, located in Chicago and built in 1965, were engineered by Khan. Although the Brunswick Building resembles a tube-in-tube structure, it is designed, without regard to any tubular action, as a shear wall-frame interaction system, where the outer frame parallel to the wind direction is designed for shear wracking, and the three-dimensional behavior of the outer frame also obtained by cantilever analysis [5], pp. 86-87. Meanwhile, in 1964, the 47-story reinforced Place Victoria building in Montreal by Pier L. Nervi was built as the first application of the core-outrigger concept.

Completed in 1970, the 100-story John Hancock Center in Chicago was designed by Fazlur R. Khan as the first steel tube structure. The 20-story Control Data Center in Houston, TX, designed by Khan was the first modern steel-concrete composite building built in 1971. In 1973, the World Trade Center in New York City (demolished in 2001) was the first steel building. The tube structure was designed by Leslie Robertson. Shortly after, the 109-story Sears Tower in Chicago was built

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