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Small Intake 3 Letters
CORSA Performance air intake products are backed by a Limited Lifetime warranty as long as you own the vehicle with proof of purchase. One year for DryTech 3D and MaxFlow 5 filters. Four years or 100,000 miles for PowerCore filters. (SEE WARRANTY)
Timing Of Chocolate Intake Affects Hunger, Substrate Oxidation, And Microbiota: A Randomized Controlled Trial
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Received: 23 January 2022 / Revised: 11 February 2022 / Accepted: 16 February 2022 / Published: 18 February 2022
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A high carbohydrate intake is usually recommended for athletes of various sports, including strength trainers, to optimize performance. However, the effect of carbohydrate intake on strength training performance has not been systematically analyzed. A systematic literature search was conducted for trials that manipulated carbohydrate intake, including supplementation, and measured strength, resistance or strength training acutely or following a diet and strength training program. Studies were categorized as (1) acute supplementation, (2) exercise-induced glycogen depletion with subsequent carbohydrate manipulation, (3) short-term carbohydrate manipulation (2–7 days) or (4) performance changes following long-term dieting. manipulation and strength training. Forty-nine studies included: 19 acute, six glycogen depletion, seven short-term studies and 17 long-term studies. Participants were strength training or athletes (39 studies), recreationally active (six studies) or untrained (four studies). Acutely, a higher carbohydrate intake did not improve performance in 13 studies and improved performance in six studies, especially in fast control groups and training with over 10 sets per muscle group. One study found that eating carbohydrates improved performance compared to water but not compared to a sensory-matched placebo breakfast. There was no evidence of a dose-response effect. After glycogen depletion, carbohydrate supplementation improved performance in three studies compared with placebo, particularly during daily exercise, but not in the isocaloric control study. None of the seven short-term studies found beneficial effects of carbohydrate manipulation. Long-term changes in performance were not affected by carbohydrate intake in 15 studies; one study favored the higher- and one the lower-carbohydrate condition. Carbohydrate intake every time cannot strengthen the performance of training in the fed state in training consisting of 10 sets of each muscle group. Performance during higher volumes may benefit from carbohydrates, but more studies with isocaloric control groups, sensory-matched placebos and locally measured glycogen depletion are needed.
Dietary carbohydrates can improve endurance exercise performance, as they are the preferred muscle energy substrate at moderate to high intensities . There is a lack of research on carbohydrate requirements for strength training, such as Olympic weightlifting, powerlifting and bodybuilding. Resistance training is metabolically different from endurance training and induces a different training stimulus and adaptive response, thus possibly having different carbohydrate requirements .
Carbohydrates can be stored as glycogen in the liver (about 80-120 g) and muscles (about 350-700 g) . Muscle contractions during low- and high-load endurance exercise depend mainly on the anaerobic glycolysis pathway for energy, because there is not enough oxygen to rely on the aerobic system and fatty acids to provide energy quickly [4, 5, 6]. Thus, a lack of glycogen can limit performance. Glycogen is localized in three main subcellular compartments in muscle cells; in the sarcolemma, intermyofibrillar between myofibrils and intramyofibrillar within myofibrils . Glycogen depletion can occur locally in these subcellular glycogen compartments after resistance exercise, although whole muscle glycogen levels are low . Excessive glycogen depletion can cause muscle fatigue by reducing ATP synthesis [7, 9], and possibly by reducing muscle excitability and impairing calcium release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum [10, 11]. Endurance training in glycogen-rich conditions can also increase protein oxidation and decrease muscle protein synthesis [ 12 , 13 ]; However, low pre-exercise glycogen availability has not been found to significantly affect anabolic signaling or muscle protein synthesis after strength training [12, 13]. While low glycogen availability may not be detrimental to muscle anabolism, it may impair strength and volume training performance [14, 15]. In addition, strength-trained individuals can achieve higher work output during training and have greater glycogen storage capacity than untrained individuals [16, 17]. Thus, trained individuals may require higher carbohydrate intake to optimize performance, although training status does not affect the relative level of glycogen depletion after resistance exercise training .
A previous review recommended a carbohydrate intake of 8–10 g per kilogram of body weight per day (g/kg/day) during ‘heavy anaerobic exercise’ . Others recommend 4-7 g/kg/day for strength athletes to optimize strength performance and hypertrophy [19, 20]. These recommendations are not far from the general recommendation of 6-12 g/kg/day for endurance athletes . Average daily carbohydrate intake in bodybuilders has been reported from 2.8 to 7.5 g/kg/day, compared to 4.2-8 g/kg/day in strength athletes [20, 21]. However, none of these recommendations or practices came from a systematic literature review, only a narrative review. Thus, this systematic review examined whether carbohydrate intake affects acute and long-term strength training performance.
Notes From Under Grounds
Current systematic reviews follow the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Guidelines . We have not registered the current review, because the protocol does not meet the requirements for preregistration in Prospero, which states that they do not accept reviews that evaluate sports performance as a result. However, in retrospect, there are other options that have been used .
A literature search was performed on EBSCOhost in the MEDLINE and SPORTDiscus databases, in addition to the SciELO database. Search terms include a combination of Medical Subject Headings (MeSH terms) and free test words that include the following keywords:
“(MH “Carbs”) OR (“glycogen depletion” OR “high carb” OR “low carb” OR keto* OR (maltodextrin N2 (supplements* OR intake) OR (glucose N2 (ingestion OR intake OR supplements) OR (carbs * N6 (intake * OR supplement * OR manipulate * OR consumption OR ingestion OR feeding OR restriction * OR diet OR drink OR breakfast)) AND MH “Resistance Training” OR MH “Weight Lifting” OR (isokinetic OR “strength training” OR ” resistance training” OR “resistance training” OR powerlifting * OR weightlifting * OR “powerlifting” OR CrossFit) AND (MH “Muscle Strength”) OR (strength OR 1 RM OR performance OR failure OR power