Venetian Magistrate 4 Letters

Venetian Magistrate 4 Letters – The first Sunday of September is always a big day in Venice – the day of the famous Regatta Storica, or Historic Regatta, a rowing competition that has been a tradition in Venice for centuries. Although more than 120 different regattas are held in Italy’s Veneto region from April to October, the Regatta Storica is the most special of them all, a spectacular cultural and sporting event that Venetians and tourists alike look forward to and celebrate.

Venice’s historic regatta has a rich and colorful history dating back to the 13th century. Historical evidence shows that boat races were first held on the Venetian lagoon to celebrate a Venetian religious festival. In the Middle Ages, Venetian regattas were held to celebrate important events such as the accession of a new Doge and the appointment of major political figures, commemorating military victories or honoring foreign dignitaries. These were always popular with Venetians and foreign visitors, patriotic, festive and at the same time very interesting events.

Venetian Magistrate 4 Letters

Venetian Magistrate 4 Letters

Today’s Venice Historic Regatta re-enacts the famous Venice Boat Parade and Rowing Competition held in 1489 to honor the arrival of Caterina Cornaro, Queen of Cyprus and Venetian descent, who abdicated in favor of Venice. In a spectacular parade before the race, beautiful 16th-century boats are manned by Venetians dressed in period costume. At the head of the parade is the famous Busintoro or Bucentaur, the traditional state galleon of the Venetian Doges and symbol of the Republic of Venice carrying the Doge and Dogaressa. Then came dozens of colorful traditional boats of various types, rowed by Caterina Cornaro and gondoliers with dignitaries of the Venetian magistracy, in a detailed reconstruction of the glory and power of La Serenissima, the largest for centuries. A respected and powerful maritime nation in the Mediterranean.

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After the parade, the main event begins with four races: one for junior rowers, then the women’s race, then one for the heavy six-oared kaorlin or transport boats, and then the most anticipated race for the two-oared gondoli or slender. gondolas. These Venetian-style rowing events are technically very challenging and test the skill and strength of Venetian rowers. Venetians love these races and form teams that make up the various districts or “sestieri”, institutions and boat clubs, while non-Venetians are forbidden to participate. Nevertheless, excited tourists flock to Venice for this annual event, flooding the Grand Canal’s banks and swimming platforms to watch and cheer on the racers. After the races, the whole city on the water fills the air with boats and people celebrating with music, food and drink.

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The Venetian Historic Regatta is an adventure and more than just a colorful spectacle; it’s a way to experience the unique spirit of Venice, its special relationship with the water, its history and culture, and its dedication to remembering and celebrating its glorious past. As Venice becomes overrun with tourists, Venetians and lovers of Venice worry that the city is losing its face and soul to the commercialization and globalization of the world around it. Events like the Venice Historic Regatta help preserve the traditions and spirit of the city and make us all feel like Venetians for a day. This article is about the four feudal states established in the Levant in the 1100s. ).

The Crusader States, also known as Outremer, were four Catholic realms in the Middle East that lasted from 1098 to 1291. These feudal polities were created by conquest and political intrigue by the Latin Catholic leaders of the First Crusade. Four states: the District of Edessa (1098–1150), the Principality of Antioch (1098–1287), the District of Tripoli (1102–1289), and the Kingdom of Jerusalem (1099–1291). The Kingdom of Jerusalem included present-day Israel and Palestine, the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and adjacent territories. Other northern states included present-day Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Lebanon. The description “Crusader States” can be misleading, since from 1130 only a small portion of the Frankish people were Crusaders. The term Outremer, used synonymously by medieval and modern writers, is derived from Frch for overseas.

In 1098, the armed pilgrimage to Jerusalem passed through Syria. The Crusader Baldwin of Boulogne replaced the Greek Orthodox ruler of Edessa after the coup, and Bohemond of Taranto became the ruling prince in the captured city of Antioch. In 1099, Jerusalem was besieged. Regional consolidation, including the capture of Tripoli. At their greatest extent, their territory included the coastal areas of present-day southern Turkey, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Palestine. Edessa fell to a Turkish warlord in 1144, but it lasted until the 13th century when the rest of the country passed to the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. Antioch was conquered in 1268 and Tripoli in 1289. Acre, the capital of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, fell in 1291, the last territories were quickly lost, and the survivors fled to the Kingdom of Cyprus (established after the Third Crusade).

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Unlike the subtheme of the Crusades, the study of independent Crusader states began in 19th-century France as an analogy to the French colonial experience in the Levant. Historians of the 20th century rejected this. In their consensual view, the Franks, as Western Europeans were known, lived as a minority society, largely urban, isolated from native peoples, with separate legal and religious systems. The indigenous peoples were of Christian and Islamic traditions, speaking Arabic, Greek and Syriac.

The terms Crusader States and Outremer (fr. outre-mer, lit. ‘overseas’) describe the four feudal states established after the First Crusade in the Levant around 1100: (from north to south) the County of Edessa, the Principality. Antioch, the district of Tripoli, and the kingdom of Jerusalem. The term Outremer dates back to the Middle Ages, while modern historians use the term Franks for the Crusader states and European conquests. However, relatively few of the arriving Europeans took the crusade oath.

In the Latin chronicles of the First Crusade, written in the early 11th century, Western Christians from Europe were called Franci, regardless of their nationality. Byzantine Greek sources use Frangoi and Arabic al-Ifranj. Alternatively, Latin or Latin was used in the chronicles. These medieval ethnonyms reflect the fact that the settlers differed from the indigenous population in terms of language and belief.

Venetian Magistrate 4 Letters

The Franks were mainly French-speaking Roman Catholics, while the local population was mainly Arabic or Greek-speaking Muslims, Christians from other dominions, and Jews.

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The Kingdom of Jerusalem expanded over historic Palestine, and at its greatest extent included some of the lands east of the Jordan River. The northern states included what is now part of Syria, southeastern Turkey, and parts of Lebanon. These regions were historically known as Syria (known to the Arabs as al-Sham) and Upper Mesopotamia. Edessa stretched eastward beyond the Euphrates. In the Middle Ages, the Crusader States were also called Syria or Syria.

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From 1115 onwards, the ruler of Jerusalem was known as the “King of the Latins of Jerusalem”. Historian Hans Eberhard Mayer believes that this reflects the fact that only Latins enjoyed full political and legal rights in the kingdom, and that the main division in society was not between nobles and commoners, but between Franks and indigenous peoples.

Although he sometimes earned the respect of, and acted as an excuse for, the rulers of other states, the king did not have formal overlord status, and those states remained legally outside the kingdom’s borders.

Jews, Christians, and Muslims revered Palestine as a particularly holy land, known as the Holy Land. All of them associated the area with the lives of the Old Testament prophets. The New Testament presents Palestine as the scene of the work of Jesus and his apostles. Islamic tradition described Jerusalem, the capital of the region, as the site of Muhammad’s miraculous night journey and ascension. Places where pilgrims from distant lands were associated with visiting holy people became temples. The Church of the Holy Sepulcher was built in Jerusalem to commemorate Jesus’ crucifixion and resurrection. On the day of his birth, the church thought that his birthplace in Bethlehem should be closed. The Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa Mosque commemorate Muhammad’s night journey.

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Although the holiest places of worship are in Palestine, neighboring Syria is also adorned with popular shrines.

As a frontier region of the Muslim world, Syria was an important theater of jihad, or Islamic holy war, but by the early 11th century the pursuit had waned.

And the Roman Catholic ideology of holy wars developed rapidly, culminating in the crusades for lands that claimed Christianity.

Venetian Magistrate 4 Letters

Most of the Crusades came from the Carolingian Empire around 800 AD. The empire disintegrated and was replaced by two independent successor states: the Holy Roman Empire, which encompassed Germany, northern Italy, and neighboring lands; and France. Germany was divided into duchies such as Lower Lorraine and Saxony, and their dukes were not always subject to the emperors. France, the successor state in the West, was still small

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