What Is A Traditional Indian Dwelling Called 9 Letters
What Is A Traditional Indian Dwelling Called 9 Letters – The Ancestral Puebloans, also known as the Anasazi, were an ancient Native American culture that comprised the former Four Corners region of the United States, comprising southeastern Utah, northeastern Arizona, northwestern New Mexico, and southwestern Colorado.
They are thought to have evolved, at least in part, from the Oshara tradition, which evolved from the Picos culture. The people and their archeological culture are often referred to as the Anasazi, which means “ancit emies,” as the Navajo called them. Modern Puebloans object to the use of the term, and some consider it derogatory.
What Is A Traditional Indian Dwelling Called 9 Letters
Ancestral Puebloans lived in a variety of structures that included small family cottages, larger structures to house clans, large pueblos, and cliff dwellings for defense. They had an intricate network connecting hundreds of communities and population centers across the Colorado Plateau. They had a distinct knowledge of the celestial sciences, which found form in their architecture. The kiva, a congregational space used primarily for ritual, was an integral part of the community structure.
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Archaeologists continue to debate why this particular culture emerged. The current consensus, based on the terminology defined in the Pecos classification, suggests their origin around the 12th century BC, during the archaeologically marked early era of Basketball II. Beginning with the earliest surveys and excavations, researchers have identified the ancestors of the Puebloans as the forerunners of the modern Pueblo peoples.
Three UNESCO World Heritage Sites located in the United States are attributed to Pueblos: Mesa Verde National Park, Chaco Culture National Historic Park, and Taos Pueblo.
Which means “village” and “people” in Spanish, was a term that originated with Spanish explorers who used it to denote a particular way of living for people. The Navajo people, who now live in parts of the former Pueblo territory, called the ancient people Anaasází, an exonym meaning “ancestors of our enemies”, referring to their competition with the Pueblo peoples. The Navajo now use this term in the sense of “ancient people” or “ancient ones.”
The ancestors of the Puebloans were one of the four major prehistoric archaeological traditions recognized in the American Southwest, also known as Oasisamerica. Others are Mogollon, Hohokam and Patayan. Compared to neighboring cultures, the ancestral Puebloans occupied the northeastern quadrant of the area.
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The ancestral homeland of the Puebloans is located on the Colorado Plateau, but extends from central New Mexico in the east to southern Nevada in the west.
Areas of southern Nevada, Utah, and Colorado form a loose northern boundary, while the southern edge is defined by the Colorado and Little Colorado rivers in Arizona and the Rio Puerco and Rio Grande in New Mexico. Structures and other evidence of Ancestral Puebloan culture have been found as far east as the American Great Plains, in areas near the Cimarron and Pecos Rivers
The terrain and resources within this large region vary widely. The plateau regions have high elevations of 4,500 to 8,500 feet (1,400 to 2,600 m). The extensive horizontal uplands are surrounded by sedimentary formations and support forests of juniper, pinion, and ponderosa pine, each with a preference at different elevations. Wind and water erosion created steep-walled canyons and carved windows and bridges out of the sandstone landscape. Rock overhangs are formed in areas where resistant layers (layers of sedimentary rock) such as sandstone or limestone overlie more easily eroded layers such as shale. Ancestral Puebloans favored building under such overhangs for shelters and defensive construction sites.
All areas of the Ancestral Puebloan homeland suffered from periods of drought and erosion from wind and water. Summer rains can be unreliable and cause devastating storms. While the amount of snowfall varied greatly during the winter, the ancestral Puebloans depended on snow for most of their water. The melting of the snow in the spring allowed the germination of seeds, both wild and cultivated.
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Where layers of sandstone overlie shale, snowmelt can accumulate, creating seeps and springs that ancestral Puebloans used as water sources. The snow also fed smaller, more predictable tributaries such as the Chinle, Animas, Jemez and Taos rivers. Larger rivers were less directly important to ancient culture, as smaller streams were easier to divert or control for irrigation.
Pueblo Bonito, the largest Chacoan great house, stands at the foot of the north rim of Chaco Canyon.
The Ancestral Puebloan culture is perhaps best known for the stone and earth dwellings that people built along the cliff faces, particularly during the Pueblo II and Pueblo III periods, from about 900 to 1350 AD. The best-preserved examples of stone dwellings are now protected in United States National Parks such as Navajo National Monumt, Chaco Culture National Historic Park, Mesa Verde National Park, Canyons of the Ancits National Monumt, Aztec Ruins National Monumt, Bandelier National Monumt, Hovweep National Monumt and Canyon de Chelly National Monument.
These villages, called pueblos by the Spanish colonists, were accessible only by rope or climbing. These astonishing construction achievements had humble beginnings. The first Ancestral Puebloan homes and villages were based on houses that were common during the Basketry era.
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Ancestral Puebloans are also known for their pottery. Local plain pottery used for cooking or storage was unpainted gray, smooth or textured. Ceramics used for more formal purposes were often more richly decorated. In the northern part of the Ancestral Pueblo lands, from about 500 to 1300 AD.
The decoration is characterized by fine hatching, and contrasting colors are created by using mineral colors on a chalky base.
South of Anasazi territory, in the Mogollon settlements, pottery was more often hand rolled, scraped and polished, red to brown in color.
Some tall cylinders were probably ritual vessels, while narrow-necked jars called ollas were often used for liquids. Pottery from southern areas of the Ancestral Pueblo lands has bold black line decoration and the use of carbon-based pigments.
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In northern New Mexico, a local black and white pottery tradition, the Rio Grande White Ware, continued after 1300 AD.
Changes in the composition, structure and decoration of pottery are signs of social change in the archaeological record. This is especially true when the peoples of the American Southwest began to leave their historic homes and migrate south. According to archaeologists Patricia Crown and Steadman Upham, the appearance of bright colors on Salado Polychromes in the 14th century may reflect religious or political alliances at the regional level. Late 14th- and 15th-century pottery from central Arizona, which is widely traded in the region, has colors and shapes that may be derived from the earlier pottery of the ancestral Pueblo and Mogollon peoples.
The ancestors of the Puebloans also excelled in rock art, which included carved petroglyphs and painted pictographs. The ancestors of the Pueblo peoples painted Barrier Canyon Style pictographs in locations where the images were protected from the sun but visible to the public. The designs include human forms. The so-called “Holy Ghost panel” in Horseshoe Canyon is considered one of the earliest uses of graphic perspective, where the largest figure appears to take on a three-dimensional rendering.
Actual archaeological evidence has shown that in at least one great house, Pueblo Bonito, an elite family whose burials link them to the site practiced matrilineal succession. Room 33 at Pueblo Bonito, the richest burial ever excavated in the Southwest, served as a crypt for about 330 years for one powerful female lineage. While other ancestral Pueblo burials have not been subjected to the same archaeogomic testing, the survival of matrilineal descent among contemporary Pueblo peoples suggests that this may have been a widespread practice among ancestral Puebloans.
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The Pueblo ancestors of the North American Southwest created a unique architecture with planned community spaces. Population centers such as Chaco Canyon (outside Crownpoint, New Mexico), Mesa Verde (near Cortez, Colorado), and Bandelier National Monument (near Los Alamos, New Mexico) brought the struggle to the Ancestral Pueblo peoples. They consist of residential complexes and structures made of stone, brick and other local materials or carved into the canyon walls. The people who evolved within these cultures also adopted design details from other cultures as far away as modern Mexico.
These buildings were usually multi-storied and multi-purpose and surrounded by plazas and viewing sheds. These communities housed between a hundred and a thousand people. These complexes hosted cultural and civic events and infrastructure that supported a vast peripheral region hundreds of kilometers away, connected by busy roads.
Multi-storied dwellings at Bandelier: stone wall foundations and beam holes and “cavats” carved into the volcanic tuff remain from the upper floors.
These towns and villages, built long before 1492 AD. BC, they were located in defensive positions, such as on high, steep mountains such as Mesa Verde or the earlier Acoma Pueblo, called “Sky City”, in New Mexico. Before 900 AD no. and after the 13th century population complexes were the main cultural centers. In Chaco Canyon, Chacoan developers quarried blocks of sandstone and hauled timber from great distances to assemble 15 major complexes. These were considered the largest buildings in North America until the late 19th century.
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Evidence for archaeoastronomy at Chaco has been suggested, with the Sun Dagger petroglyph at Fajada Butte being a popular example. Many Chacoan buildings may be aligned to capture the sun and moon