Words With The Letters Dailyc
Words With The Letters Dailyc – Vol. 5, Issue 1, 2022 February 13, 2022 PDT Willingness to Pay for Cider Products: Results from a Survey of Consumption Habits and Behavior.
Le Fur, E., & Outreville, J. F. (2022). Willingness to pay for cider products: results from a survey of consumption habits and behaviour. Wine Business Journal, 5(1), 88–103. https://doi.org/10.26813/001c.28199
Words With The Letters Dailyc
The purpose of the paper is to investigate the influence of habits and consumption behavior on willingness to pay (WTP) for cider in a survey of young consumers.
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The analysis is based on a questionnaire distributed to a group of 433 French business students from December 2017 to January 2018. The question was designed to test whether or not young consumers would pay a higher price for quality cider in terms of traditional sweet. cider with similar characteristics. We model the premium that consumers are willing to pay for organic cider, farm cider and rosé cider. In order to take the features of the important part of zero or negative premiums on the dependent variable, the Heckman two-step evaluation method is performed.
The results show that the younger generation considers cider as a cheap, festive and non-organic drink and is willing to pay a premium for quality cider such as specialty rosé and farm cider.
The results of this research have beneficial implications not only for the cider market but also for understanding the characteristics of competing beverages that young consumers may like and value.
Cider production is popular worldwide in tropical regions where apple trees grow. Evidence along the Nile River dates back to 1300 BC, but the historical development of cider production is less clear (Watson, 2003). Today, the majority of cider production takes place in Europe where the word cider refers to the fermented product. In Europe, the main cider producing countries are England, Spain, France, Germany and Ireland, while smaller amounts are produced in Finland, Poland, Austria and Switzerland (AICV, 2018). Cider consumption is also European and the former continent accounts for 70 percent of world cider consumption. After a period of declining consumption, the cider market has grown significantly since 2013 (AICV, 2018). A comparative analysis of the wine, beer and cider markets reveals that the cider market will register the highest growth in the next year (IWSR, 2019). Diverse and high-quality products and innovations such as rosé cider, ice cider, and flavored cider may explain this new interest in cider by young consumers (Cloutier & Détolle, 2017; Fabien-Ouellet & Conner, 2018). Also, Generation Z consumers (born after 1996) drink less alcohol in general according to a 2018 study by Berenberg Research (Pepper, 2018) and focus on lower-alcohol beverages, ready-made fresh drinks, or mixed drinks (Craigs et. al., 2011; Foster et al., 2003).
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Cider, like wine, is a good experience that has a few characteristics that distinguish it from other drinks. However, unlike the wine market (Charters & Pettigrew, 2008; Fogarty, 2010), there is little information on consumer preferences for cider (Sousa, 2014). There are two common ways to assess consumer value for product attributes. First, hedonic price analysis relates the price of different products to their characteristics. The technique is often used in the alcohol sector and especially in the wine industry (Cardebat & Figuet, 2004; Lecocq & Visser, 2006; Oczkowski & Doucouliagos, 2015; see J.-F. Outreville & Le Fur , 2020 for a review) as well as in non-alcoholic environments such as water (Capehart, 2015). J. F. Outreville & Le Fur (2020) apply this analysis to analyze the price determination of cider and emphasize the importance of high quality products and geographical factors related to the region of origin.
Second, the evaluation of willingness to pay (WTP) is based on the maximum price at which a consumer will purchase a product. This is consistent with the standard economic view of customer reservation pricing (RP). According to Bearden et al. (1992), WTP and RP are correlated and WTP can be considered as an upper bound for RP (Kalyanaram & Little, 1994). Although Adaval & Monroe (2002) raise the question of stability because the measurement is valid in a limited time and environment, the method is often used in the field of wine ( Brugarolas Mollá-Bauzá et al., 2005; Holmquist et al., 2011; Lecat et al., 2016; Nelson Barber, 2009; Sellers-Rubio & Nicolau-Gonzalbez, 2016; Yang et al., 2009).
In the cider market, Didier et al. (2012) distinguish four types of consumption: basic, traditional, pleasure and festive. They show that consumers differ in their preferences for specific characteristics of cider, but cannot value individual ciders or the characteristics of these ciders. Tozer et al. (2015) identify characteristics of craft cider that consumers like and value and develop a framework for objective analysis of cider and determination of consumer WTP using this framework. Variables affecting WTP for cider include age, whether the participant is a cider or beer drinker, and sensory attributes associated with taste, flavor, and aroma.
The behavior of purchasing and consumption in daily life is often repeated and done in familiar places, leading consumers to form habits (Ji & Wood, 2007). Once formed, habits influence future behavior (Pollak, 1970, 1976). N. Barber et al. (2006) and Thach & Olsen (2006) were among the first to examine young people’s perceptions and attitudes about wine consumption. Young people consider wine as a good drink to drink with food or to socialize with family and friends (Olsen et al., 2007). Young adults are also more likely to drink alcohol outside and prefer beer and ready-made drinks. To our knowledge, there are no studies applying the WTP approach to find out whether the habits and attitudes of young consumers influence their willingness to pay for a bottle of cider.
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The purpose of our study was to determine the attitudes, attitudes and behaviors of young adults towards cider consumption. As Generation Z enters the workforce and their purchasing power increases, companies cannot operate within the traditional assumptions or framework of existing generations. To confirm this young generation, our study was conducted with students using the same questionnaire as used in a previous study (Lecat et al., 2016). The question asks for a choice (good or bad) based on attitudes, customs and habits and asks students how much they would pay for a particular bottle of cider. Four types of cider are offered. Answers are preferred statements with no right or wrong answers. The questionnaire was distributed from December 2017 to January 2018 at INSEEC Bordeaux Business School in France. Only French business students make up the population.
The purpose of this research is to identify the characteristics of cider that consumers like and value and develop a framework for analyzing the definition of consumer WTP. Our hypothesis is that WTP is influenced by past consumption habits and behavior. The results of this research may also be useful for cider makers in understanding the characteristics of cider that young consumers like and value.
The results indicate that: 1) Students perceive cider as a cheap, festive and non-organic drink. Cider is associated with special events such as epiphanies. Although cider is considered an alcoholic beverage and is often compared to beer; may be combined with non-alcoholic beverages such as soda; 2) Students are willing to pay more than 50 percent for specific quality ciders such as rosé, grower and organic cider and WTP depends on gender, style and habits .
The focus of the study was students’ WTP for a bottle of cider. Cider can be judged on three dimensions: acidity, tannin, and sugar level (the higher the sugar level, the lower the alcohol level). Sweet cider (less than 3 percent by volume), which goes well with pancakes or desserts, creates a lot of flavor. Other ciders, dry or hard cider (4 percent or more), are more bitter or brighter. In the question, the answer is considered to be independent of the nature of the cider and the place of purchase, but should reflect the taste of the consumer.
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There are other possible classifications of cider types. A cider labeled “farm cider” is grown and produced on the same farm using traditional techniques. If cider is “organic”, it is a biological product with the letters AB on the label. More recently, the “rosé” trend has found its way into hard cider using red apples to give cider a distinctive millennial pink or adding berries to the drink. Study participants must indicate how much money they would pay for a bottle of cider of that classification without a label.
Choice-based research evaluates purchase decisions and behavior using a “stated choice model” (N. A. Barber & Taylor, 2013). In these studies, although the devices used by consumers are different, they are considered to be similar in terms of size and brand, indicating that the option to return in person can be used.