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Received: 17 August 2020 / Revised: 24 September 2020 / Accepted: 25 September 2020 / Published: 15 October 2020
Strain resistance force sensors have been applied to monitor strain in various parts and structures for industrial use. Here we review the working principles, structural forms and manufacturing processes for resistance meters. In particular, we focus on recent developments in resistive strain transmission for resistive strain force sensors and the effect of creep due to sustained loads and/or temperature variations. Various error compensation methods to reduce the effect of creep were analyzed to develop a measurement standard for drag force sensors. Additionally, the current status of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), silicon carbide (SiC), gallium nitride (GaN), and other wide-gap semiconductors for a wide range of strain sensors is reviewed. Technical requirements and key issues of strain resistance force sensors for future applications are presented.
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Strain resistance force sensor; strain gauge; stress transfer; creep effect; carbon nanotubes (CNT); piezoresistive effect strain resistance force sensor; strain gauge; stress transfer; creep effect; carbon nanotubes (CNT); piezoresistive effect
The resistance force meter was invented by Simmons and Ruge in 1938 , and almost 80 years have passed since resistance force sensors began to be produced in 1942. of various components and structures in the aviation, transport and automotive industries, civil engineering, and even in the medical field. For example, in civil bridge structures, a large amount of stress applied to the bridge structure over a long period of time will fatigue the structure and cause failure. By monitoring the distribution of structural stresses within bridges, early failure predictions can be made and the reliability and service life of the bridge structure can be improved [2, 3]. Based on the combination of physical quantity sensitive elements and resistance gauges, physical quantities such as load and moment acting on the structure can be obtained indirectly, and other physical quantities such as strain, displacement, bending moment, moment and acceleration can be directly measured . A stress sensor based on a resistance strain gauge can measure not only the stress on the surface of the structure but also the stress inside the structure. When a strain gauge is installed in cast concrete structures, the state of stress inside these structures can be monitored in real time via external measuring lines .
The structural parameters of the strain resistance force sensor directly affect its measurement characteristics. The structural parameters of the sensitive door and the manufacturing process determine the static and dynamic measurement errors of the force sensor. Although resistive force sensors have been developed for several decades, to promote their use in engineering applications, research is ongoing to meet the increasing demands of their characteristics. One of these research topics is the dependence of the output characteristics on the transverse effects, the end effect and the length of the network wire of the strain gauge. The spacing of the grid wires affects the fluctuation of the measurement error. Furthermore, the deflection of the length and diameter of the lattice wire results in matrix stress transfer errors. Creep effects due to constant loading and/or temperature variations have led to various error compensation methods to aid in the development of a metrology standard for resistive strain sensors, particularly for dynamic strain measurement. In order to improve the measurement accuracy and long-term stability of the strain gauge force sensor system, a finite element method was used to optimize the structural parameters of the sensitive gate to reduce die stress transfer errors. In this paper, we provide an overview of the recent progress of micro-nano grating structures sensitive to resistance and strain and the strain transfer characteristics of strain force sensors. Furthermore, the technical development and key issues of strain resistance force sensors are explored for their future applications.
Deformation force sensors mainly consist of an elastomer, a strain gauge, an adhesive, a wire, and a subsequent signal processing circuit. During application, a resistance gauge is attached to the surface of the metal elastomer . When the elastomer is deformed by an external force, the deformation is transmitted to the resistance gauge through the adhesive. The resistance deformation effect or the piezoresistance effect of the resistance meter leads to a change in the resistance value of the sensitive grids. Finally, the transformation circuit transforms the variable resistance into corresponding voltage or current signals . Figure 1 shows the structure of a metal foil resistance gauge commonly used in strain gauges. The metal foil is cut into grids and connected to the polymer film substrate, which is an electrical insulator.
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The resistance-sensitive grids of metal foil resistance gauges are generally made of constantan, nichrome, and other metallic materials, which are the sensitive elements of the strain and strain sensors. The substrate films are made of polymer material (polyimide, epoxy resin and phenolic resin) or glass fiber film, which have good electrical insulation, moisture and heat resistance. The substrate film supports the sensitive grids and maintains their relative position. During the measurement process, the substrate film transfers the generated stress within the elastomer to the sensitive grid. The coating film protects the sensitive grid from mechanical damage and corrosion caused by moisture, which maintains the stability of the strain gauge. The coating film, sensitive grids and substrate film are glued with a thin layer of glue [6, 7].
For a rectangular sensitive grid of length L, cross-sectional area A and resistance ρ, the resistance is defined as R = ρL/A. When the action of the axial force leads to the deformation of the wire ΔL, the relative change in resistance is calculated according to:
Poisson’s ratio of materials for metal deformation ranges from 0.3 to 0.5. It was found that the sensitivity coefficient of resistance to deformation of many alloys is greater than (1 + 2µ) . In the early days, for example, for the strain-type sensor invented by Simmons, metal wires were used to create a resistance-sensitive, strain-sensitive grid that was placed on the surface of a cylindrical metal elastomer. These strain sensors were used to measure the pulse force in the pendulum impact test . However, this type of wire force strain sensor cannot be used to measure the surface strain of curved parts. As shown in Figure 2a, sensitive metal wires were glued to a flexible paper-based material. This flexible deformation force sensor can be glued to the surface of the elastomer, where the electrical signal passes through two metal wires at either end of the sensitive network . The flexible substrate, which has become the basic structure of various resistance meters, enables the attachment of sensitive grids to the contoured surface of the elastomer. The etching process can effectively produce certain types of lattice structures, where the ability to control the initial resistance in the lattice structures improves the sensitivity of the strain gauge. As shown in Figure 2b, the foil-like sensor network was fabricated on the epoxy resin polymer by an etching process. This foil-like lattice structure has the advantages of low creep effect, low delay and good long-term stability, as well as self-compensation of temperature. (1952, Eisler Paul) .
Strain gauges made of semiconductor materials have the advantages of a small transverse effect coefficient and a small mechanical delay. Their sensitivity coefficient is far higher than the sensitivity coefficient of a metal strain gauge. As shown in Figure 2c, semiconductor strain gauges are often used to make small force-strain sensors.
In 1973, in order to overcome the inherent shortcomings of normal stress load sensors, Hogstrom put forward the shear stress theory