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Entity Inner Self Crossword Clue 5 Letters
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Received: 26 December 2020 / Revised: 14 January 2021 / Accepted: 16 January 2021 / Published: 20 January 2021
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In recent years, the use of active and transformative methodologies has increased. Here, gamification uses the typical elements of a game in different contexts, including the educational one. In particular, Escape Room games used as educational tools have potential for teaching-learning, and they can be beneficial because they can improve students’ motivation and feelings towards learning. This is especially valuable in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) courses, where the cognitive factor and the multidimensional field are closely related. This study presents an online Edu-Escape room with science and sustainability content as an educational tool in a STEM course. With the proposed intervention, we analyze how this tool affects the multifaceted domain (attitudes, self-efficacy and emotions) of pre-service teachers (PSTs). According to the attitude and self-efficacy analysis, it can be seen that most of the analyzed items show an increase in self-efficacy and more positive attitudes after the intervention. In particular, Question 11 (Q11) shows a significant difference. Regarding the emotional outcomes, the positive emotions of “pleasure,” “enjoyment,” and “pleasure” increased significantly after the intervention. However, the negative emotions “sadness”, “anger” and “anxiety” also increase, partly due to the characteristics of the game. The proposed intervention had a medium effect on items with significant differences except for the feeling of “anxiety”, where the intervention had a large effect according to the effect size (ES) analysis. According to principal component analysis (PCA), attitudes, self-efficacy and emotions of PSTs are positively related, and the effect of the recommended activity shows a significant improvement in these variables. Finally, partial least squares (SEM-PLS) structural equation analysis showed the effects that instruction has on PSTs’ emotions and that they also had a significant effect on positive attitudes toward science and self-efficacy. . Therefore, there are many benefits of implementing the proposed online-based Edu-Escape Room in the multifaceted field of PSTs.
Escape Room; gamification attitude/autonomy; feeling PST; STEM education; Inflatable classroom Escape Room; gamification attitude/autonomy; feeling PST; STEM education; flipped class
With the increasing popularity of active and intensive learning methodologies in the classroom, the use of games can help support student satisfaction, grades, collaboration and learning motivation [1, 2, 3]. Therefore, game-based education has provided an opportunity for an interdisciplinary approach that considers how to develop a realistic environment with the aim of achieving a better student experience [2, 3]. In this context, Deterding  pointed out that gamification often uses elements and techniques typical of games in different contexts, such as those of business or education. In particular, in university education, various studies show successful practices using gamification [5, 6, 7]. They even state that participating students tend to achieve better academic performance, motivation and attitudes towards their courses [5, 6, 7]. In the context of gamification, Escape Room, a didactic application, is a live-action game in which participants can discover clues, solve puzzles and perform tasks in one or more rooms to reach a specific goal that will allow them to get out room in a limited time [2, 8, 9]. Therefore, Nicholson  emphasizes the importance of connecting teaching-learning activities with the history and context of the Escape Room, so that students can participate in the narrative process and then be inspired to engage with real problems and make progress. intrinsic motivation to learn and explore [11, 12]. However, the use of gamification and Escape Rooms in higher education is still at an early stage; They are limited tools, although they have potential for teaching-learning. In these situations, with higher demands and challenges, the Escape Room is a gamification tool that can be used in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) courses with multiple domains of students [13, 14].
Along with gamification in active and intensive methodologies, STEM has attracted attention in recent years due to its ability to provide students with a proper preparation [14, 15]. The United Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) has described the current STEM education situations [16, 17] that can promote communal awareness of values and enhance lifelong learning [16, 18, 19, 20]. STEM education proposes the integration of various scientific disciplines as a coherent entity, whose teaching is integrated and coordinated, so that it can be used to solve problems in everyday situations . In fact, Wiswall et al.  suggested that students who participate in programs and activities that focus on STEM courses obtain better grades in STEM subjects than those who do not participate. Additionally, students who participate in these STEM programs were found to choose STEM degrees more often than students who did not participate. However, despite the fact that the implementation of STEM methodologies is useful in promoting students’ scientific literacy, distrust is one of the main reasons for a negative attitude towards science . According to Vázquez and Manassero , students begin to show disdain for scientific disciplines at a young age, often initiating a negative image of science and then abandoning the idea of choosing a STEM career. In addressing this challenge, it is important to consider students’ preferences to develop interest in science disciplines from an early age because these preferences and interests persist into adulthood and can facilitate the choice of STEM careers . Therefore, it is important to increase the positive affective area of students in STEM courses, which can be done through gamification and Escape Rooms in active and intensive methodologies.
Small Miracles From Beyond By Yitta Halberstam, Judith Leventhal
In the context of games and Escape Rooms and using active and intensive methodologies, student satisfaction, grades, cooperation and motivation have increased in the classroom [2, 3]. This indicates that different types of positive emotions are developed and highlights the importance of motivation, interest, academic self-concept, cognitive activity, learning success and enjoyment . Here, students experience the proposed enigmas, as well as their usefulness in promoting cooperation and teamwork in an educational environment [26, 27]. In this context, emotions play a fundamental role in science teaching-learning because they are closely related to the cognitive factor. Some authors [28, 29] have described the relationship between the rational and emotional domains and argue that there is an increasingly clear relationship between the two domains . Encouraging the presence of positive emotions in students while studying a subject facilitates learning, while the generation of negative emotions limits it [28, 30]. However, some studies [31, 32] state that these types of activities also create feelings such as stress and frustration, especially in challenging elements or tests. The emotional factor is also related to self-efficacy in teaching-learning processes . According to Bandura , teachers’ self-efficacy refers to teachers’ individual awareness of their effectiveness, i.e. the level of their ability to motivate students to higher levels of performance. Some studies [34, 35] found a positive relationship between self-efficacy and academic success, such that a strong sense of self-efficacy predicts increased performance and success, which then becomes the basis for greater self-efficacy. In particular, Kazempour , in a study on future teachers, shows that the understanding of negative experiences and difficulties with science for pre-service teachers (PST) allows to better understand their low self-efficacy and negative attitude towards understand science teaching. , as well as the relationship between trust, self-efficacy and attitude