Letters On Chivalry And Romance

Letters On Chivalry And Romance – God of Speed! Edmund Blair Leighton, 1900: Late Victorian depiction of a lady performing a favor on a knight preparing for battle.

Courtly love (Occitan: fin’amor [finaˈmuɾ]; French: amour courtois [amuʁ kuʁtwa]) was a medieval European literary concept of love that emphasized nobility and chivalry. Medieval literature is full of examples of knights going on adventures and performing various feats or services for ladies because of their “court love”. This kind of love was originally a literary fiction created for the nobility, but over time, these ideas about love have changed and attracted a wider audience. In the era of the High Middle Ages, the “love game” as a set of social practices developed around these ideas. “Noble love” was considered a practice of enrichment and improvement.

Letters On Chivalry And Romance

Letters On Chivalry And Romance

Courtly love originated at the ducal and princely courts of Aquitaine, Provence, Champagne, ducal Burgundy and the Norman kingdom of Sicily.

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In d from elev century. In essence, courtly love was an experience between erotic desire and spiritual achievement, “a love both illicit and morally uplifting, passionate and disciplined, demeaning and uplifting, human and transcendent.”

This theme attracted the attention of both musicians and poets, and was often used by troubadours, trouvers and minnesengers. The theme was also popular with major writers including Geoffrey Chaucer, Dante, and Petrarch.

The term “courtly love” was first popularized by Gaston Paris, and since then it has had many definitions and meanings. Its interpretation, origins and influence continue to be the subject of critical debate.

Although its origin is obscure, the term amour courtois (“courtly love”) gained a lot of popularity thanks to Gaston Paris.

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In his 1883 article “Etudes sur les romans de la Table Ronde: Lancelot du Lac, II: Le conte de la charrette”, a treatise on Créty de Troy’s “Lancelot, Knight of the Cart” (1177). Paris said that courtly love is worship and noble discipline. The lover (idolater) accepts his mistress’s independence and tries to make himself worthy of her by acting courageously and nobly (nobly) and doing whatever she pleases, subjecting himself to a series of trials (ordeals) to prove to her his ardor and commitment. Sexual satisfaction, according to Paris, may not be the goal or the result, but love was not exclusively platonic, as it was based on sexual desire.

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The term and definition of Paris was soon widely accepted and accepted. In 1936, C. S. Lewis wrote The Allegory of Love, further solidifying courtly love as “love of a highly specialized kind, the characteristics of which may be summed up as humility, civility, adultery, and the religion of love.”

Criticized as a modern invention in the 1970s, Donaldson called it the “Myth of Courtly Love” because it is not supported by medieval texts. Even though the term “court love” appears in only one poem in Provsalian that has come down to us (as cortez amors in Peyre d’Alverne’s late 12th-century lyrics), it is closely related to the term fin’amor (“beautiful love” ), which often appears in Prov-Salian and French, as well as in German, translated as hohe Minne. In addition, other terms and phrases related to “politeness” and “love” were common in the Middle Ages. Even though Paris used a term that had little support in modern literature, it was not a neologism and does usefully describe the specific concept of love and focuses on the courtesy that was at its core.

Letters On Chivalry And Romance

Richard Traxler says that “the concept of court literature is tied to the idea of ​​the existence of court texts, texts created and read by men and women who share some kind of complex culture that they all have.”

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He argues that many of the texts that scholars call courtly also include “impolite” texts, and argues that there is no clear way to tell “where courtesy and impoliteness begin” because readers will be pleased with texts that were meant to be tediously courteous. not realizing that they also rejoice in impolite texts.

The practice of courtly love developed in the castle life of four regions: Aquitaine, Provence, Champagne and ducal Burgundy from about the time of the First Crusade (1099). Eleanor of Aquitaine (1124–1204) brought the ideals of courtly love from Aquitaine first to the court of France and then to the iron (she successively became consort in each of these two kingdoms). Her daughter Marie, Countess of Champagne (1145–1198) brought courtly conduct to the court of the Count of Champagne. Courtly love found expression in the lyric poetry of troubadours such as William IX, Duke of Aquitaine (1071–1126), one of the first troubadour poets.

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The poets adopted the terminology of feudalism, declaring themselves vassals of the lady and addressing her as midos (lord), which had the dual purpose of allowing the poet to use a code name (to avoid revealing the lady’s name) and at the same time flattering her by referring to her as to his master. The ideal lady for a troubadour was the wife of his employer or lord, a lady of higher status, usually a wealthy and powerful female head of a castle. When her husband was away on the Crusade or elsewhere, she dominated domestic and cultural affairs; sometimes it happened when the husband was at home. The poet voiced the aspirations of the court class, for only those who were noble could experience court love. This new kind of love saw nobility not in wealth and family history, but in character and actions; such as devotion, piety, courage, which attracted the poorer knights who saw the way to advance.

Since at that time some noble marriages had little in common with modern views on what constitutes love,

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“Lovers” in the context of courtly love should not refer to sex, but rather to the act of love. These “lovers” had short, secret dates that escalated mentally, but not physically.

On the other hand, the constant references to beds and sleeping in the arms of a lover in medieval sources such as the troubador albas and novels such as Créti’s Lancelot imply, at least in some cases, the context of actual sexual intercourse.

By the end of the 12th century, Andreas Chaplain’s highly influential De amore (“On Love”) codified the rules of courtly love. De amore lists rules such as:

Letters On Chivalry And Romance

Images of War: The Siege of the Castle of Love on the back of an ivory mirror, possibly Paris, c. 1350–1370 (Louvre)

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Spanish-Arabic literature, as well as Arabic influence in Sicily, provided an additional source, along with Ovid, for the early Provence troubadours, although this is sometimes overlooked.

In the accounts of courtly love. The Arab poets and the poetry of Moslem Spain express the same oxymoronic views of love as beneficent and painful as the troubadours;

Given that practices like courtly love were already prevalent in al-Andalus and other parts of the Islamic world, it is highly likely that Islamic practices influenced Christian Europeans, especially in southern Europe, where classical forms of courtly love first appeared.

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According to Gustave E. von Grünebaum, several relevant elements were developed in Arabic literature—including contrasts such as illness/remedy and pleasure/torment—to characterize the love experience.

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980 – 1037; known in Europe as “Avikna”) developed the concept of the “noble power” of love at the beginning of the 11th century in his treatise “Risala fil-Ishk” (“Treatise on Love”).

The last element of courtly love, the concept of “love as a wish that will never be fulfilled”, was sometimes implicit in Arabic poetry, but first developed into a doctrine of European literature in which all four elements of courtly love were prest.

According to the argument put forward by Marie Rosa Mokal in The Arab Role in the History of Medieval Literature (1987), a group of itinerant poets emerged in 11th-century Spain who went from court to court and sometimes to Christian courts in southern France. , a situation accurately reflecting what happened in the south of France about a century later. Contact between these Spanish poets and French troubadours was frequent. The metrical forms used by the Spanish poets resembled those later used by the troubadours.

Letters On Chivalry And Romance

The historical analysis of courtly love differs in different schools of historians. The type of history that sees the early Middle Ages as dominated by a prim and patriarchal theocracy sees courtly love as a “humanist” reaction to the puritanical views of the Catholic Church.

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Scholars who support this view value courtly love for exalting femininity as a noble, spiritual and moral force, in contrast to the iron chauvinism of the first and second estates.

The condemnation of courtly love in the early 13th century by the church as heretical is seen by these scholars as an attempt by the church to suppress this “sexual revolt”.

However, other scholars point out that courtly love was certainly associated with the Church’s efforts to civilize the crude Germanic feudal codes in the late 11th century. It has also been suggested that the prevalence of arranged marriages required other ways of expressing more personal expressions of romantic love, and thus was not a reaction to bigotry or patriarchy.

Devano Mahardika

Halo, Saya adalah penulis artikel dengan judul Letters On Chivalry And Romance yang dipublish pada October 15, 2022 di website Caipm

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