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Minako Summer Holiday Vocation Decor Tropical Palm Tree Tapestry Wall Hanging,natural Landscape Blue Sky Ocean Sea Coastline Beach Coconut Tree Tapestry For Bedroom Living Room Decoration Home Decor Window Treatments Home Décor
By Yangyang Liu 1, †, Huaiqiong Chen 1, †, Yun Yang 1, †, Zheng Zhang 1, 2, Jianhe Wei 1, 2, * , Hui Meng 1, Weiping Chen 1, Jindong Feng 1, Bingchun Gan 1, Xuyu Chen 1, Zhihui Gao 2, Junqin Huang 2, Bo Chen 1 and Hongjiang Chen 1
Hainan Provincial Key Laboratory of Southern Medicine Resource Conservation and Development, Hainan Branch, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Wanning 571533, China
National Endangered Medicinal Materials Breeding Engineering Laboratory, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Malianwabei Road, Beijing 10093, China
Received: 30 November 2012 / Revised: 22 January 2013 / Accepted: 26 February 2013 / Published: 7 March 2013
Ontogenesis Of Resin Ducts And Secretory Process In Protium Spruceanum (burseraceae) Stems
Agarwood is the fragrant resin-infused wood derived from the wounded trees of the Aquilaria species. It is a valuable non-timber forest product used in perfumes and as medicine. Reforestation for Aquilaria trees combined with artificial agarwood inducing methods serves as a way to supply agarwood and conserve wild Aquilaria stock. However, existing agarwood inducing methods produce poor quality agarwood with low yield. Our study evaluated a new technique for agarwood production in cultivated Aquilaria trees, called the whole-tree agarwood-inducing technique (Agar-Wit). Ten different agarwood inducers were used to compare Agar-Wit with three existing agarwood inducing methods. For Aquilaria trees treated with these ten inducers, agarwood formed and spread throughout the tree from the point of transfusion in the trunk to the roots and branches of the entire tree. The yield of agarwood per tree reached 2, 444.83 to 5, 860.74 g, which is 4 to 28 times higher than that of existing agarwood inducing methods. In addition, this agarwood derived from Agar-Wit induction was found to have a higher quality compared to existing methods, and similar to that of wild agarwood. This indicates that Agar-Wit may have commercial potential. Induction of cultivated agarwood using this method could meet the significant demand for agarwood, while conserving and protecting the remaining wild Aquilaria trees.
Agarwood; perfume; whole tree agarwood inducing technique (Agar-Wit); Aquilaria sinensis; cultivation; alternative method agarwood; perfume; whole tree agarwood inducing technique (Agar-Wit); Aquilaria sinensis; cultivation; alternative method
Agarwood is a highly valued non-wood forest product that can be used in perfumes, incense, medicines, aromatherapy and religious ceremonies [1, 2, 3]. The precious, expensive and fragrant agarwood has been used for centuries as incense in Buddhist, Hindu and Islamic ceremonies. It also plays an important role in Traditional Chinese Medicine for obvious medicinal effects as a sedative and carminative, and to relieve gastric problems, cough, rheumatism and high fever. The essential oil is a highly sought after ingredient in deluxe perfumes for its warm and unique balsamic notes with sandalwood-ambergris tones. The value of agarwood exported from Singapore alone each year has been estimated to exceed $1.2 billion . The most important source of agarwood is the Aquilaria spp. tree, which is an angiosperm within the Thymelaeaceae family . Species that produce agarwood are found only in areas ranging from India eastward across Southeast Asia, as well as southern China, with Indonesia and Malaysia being the two main countries as the origin for agarwood. A. sinensis is the main source of agarwood formation in China. According to some historical records, Dongguan City (Guangdong Province, China) abounded in agarwood 400 years ago; its agarwood trade was so well developed that raw agarwood products were transported to Southeast Asia and even as far as Arabia. In fact, Hong Kong is literally called the “Perfumed Port” as it was one of the significant trading centers for agarwood and incense in the early days, when Aquilaria sinensis was widely traded in Hong Kong. and then transported to many Chinese provinces, Southeast Asia. as well as Arabia, together with incense and other spices .
The healthy wood of Aquilaria trees is white, soft and without scented resins. In a natural environment, agarwood forms only when affected by certain external factors, such as lightning, animal grazing, insect attack or microbial invasion, typically around injured parts or trunk rot [7, 8]. Agarwood formation occurs slowly and infrequently in old trees and the supply of agarwood from wild sources is far less than market demand. Due to its enormous value and rarity, the indiscriminate felling of trees and overharvesting in the hope of finding the precious resin have led to the decline of wild trees [9, 10]. Eight species of Aquilaria, including A. sinensis, have been listed in the IUCN red list as endangered species . All species of Aquilaria have been listed on Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora since 2004 .
Types Of Trees Species
Efforts have been made to preserve natural populations of Aquilaria  and to increase the supply of agarwood, and include the development of cultivation of Aquilaria species and to intentionally induce cultivated trees to produce the agarwood. In Indonesia, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam and some other countries, Aquilaria plantations have been established . In China, more than 20 million trees of A. sinensis are widely cultivated in the provinces of Hainan, Guangdong and Yunnan.
Farmers in these countries have gained some experience in the treated production of low-grade agarwood. Wounding methods such as ax wounds, severe bark removal and nails have been applied [1, 2, 3, 8, 11, 13]. China had developed various artificial methods of inducing agarwood before the Song dynasty (A.D. 960). The method of partial pruning of a stem and the method of burning a chisel have been often used by Chinese farmers in recent decades. The method of inoculation of fungi was invented by Tunstall in 1929 , and was introduced in China in 1976. Therefore, we summarize those three methods as existing agarwood producing methods. These methods require a long time for the formation of agarwood, but produce a low yield of agarwood. In addition, the resin produced in a short time in this way is considered to be of inferior quality .
To date, some comparatively new and efficient methods have been developed in Vietnam by Blanchette from the University of Minnesota, and these have been called cultured agarwood kits (CA-Kits) . The main principle of this process is to dig holes in the trunk of the tree and keep the wound open by putting a small piece of plastic pipe in the hole, and then inoculate different chemical media into the wound. With the advantage of easy evaluation of the color zone, this chemical treatment represents a great improvement compared to the traditional methods of physical injury.
However, no technique for inducing agarwood qualified for wide use in plantations has been well established. Here, the term qualified agarwood means those agarwood samples that are up to the standard of the Chinese Pharmacopoeia in China. Our laboratory has developed a simpler and more efficient method to induce qualified agarwood formation, called the whole tree agarwood inducing technique (Agar-Wit) , in which simple transfusion sets are adopted and cheap. We inject agarwood inducers into the xylem part of Aquilaria trees through these transfusion sets. Due to the transport of water, the inducers are transported to the whole body of the tree, thus forming a general wound in the tree, and as a result, agarwood is finally formed in Aquilaria trees in a period short of time.
The Impact Of Deforestation
To evaluate the quantity and quality of agarwood induced by Agar-Wit, the harvested agarwood was analyzed and compared to that produced by the three existing agarwood inducing methods. The alcohol-soluble extractive content and thin-layer chromatography required in Chinese