Which Letters In The Image Represent The Heart’s Ventricles
Which Letters In The Image Represent The Heart’s Ventricles – The heart is a complex muscle that pumps blood through three divisions: the coronary (vessels that serve the heart), the pulmonary (heart and lungs), and the systemic (body systems), as shown in Figure 21.10. The coronary circulation of the heart receives blood directly from the main artery (vein) from the heart. For pulmonary and systemic circulation, the heart must pump blood to the lungs or other parts of the body, respectively. In vertebrates, the lungs are closer to the heart in the thoracic cavity. A shorter pump means that the muscle wall on the right side of the heart is not as thick as the left side, which must have enough pressure to pump blood up to your thumb.
Figure 21.10. The mammalian circulatory system is divided into three circuits: the systemic circuit, the pulmonary circuit, and the coronary circuit. Blood is pumped from the veins of the systemic circuit to the right side of the heart and then to the right ventricle. The blood then enters the veins and is oxygenated through the lungs. Blood from the lungs returns to the heart through the left atrium. Blood from the left ventricle reenters the systemic circulation through the arteries and is distributed to the rest of the body. The coronary circuit that supplies blood to the heart is not shown.
Which Letters In The Image Represent The Heart’s Ventricles
Myocardium is asymmetric, and blood must travel through the pulmonary and systemic circuits. Because the right side of the heart sends blood to the pulmonary circuit, it is smaller than the left side and must send blood throughout the body in the systemic circuit, as shown in Figure 21.11. In humans, the heart is about the size of a clenched fist. It is divided into four chambers: two atria and two ventricles. On the right there is an atrium and an auricle, on the left there is a cavity and an auricle. The atria are the chambers that receive blood, and the ventricles are the chambers that send blood out. The right atrium receives oxygenated blood from the superior vena cava, which drains blood from the brain and arm, as well as the inferior vena cava, which drains blood from the afferent veins. From the lower limbs and feet. In addition, the right side of the heart receives blood from the coronary arteries. This deoxygenated blood then passes through the coronary artery, or tricuspid valve, into the right ventricle, a type of connective tissue that prevents blood from flowing back. The valve that separates the chambers on the left side of the heart valve is called the bicuspid or mitral valve. After it fills, the right ventricle pumps blood through the pulmonary artery and reoxygenates it to the lungs through the semilunar valve (or pulmonary valve). After blood passes through the pulmonary artery, the right hemispheric valve closes to prevent blood from flowing into the right atrium. The left ventricle then receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs through the pulmonary veins. This blood passes through the bicuspid or mitral valve (a valve on the left side of the heart) into the left ventricle, where it is pumped through the aorta, the body’s main artery, to deliver oxygenated blood to the organs and muscles. of the body. After blood leaves the left ventricle and is ejected into the ventricles, the aorta valve (or aortic valve) closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the left ventricle. This type of pump is called a double circulation and is found in all mammals.
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Figure 21.11. (1) The heart is made primarily of a thick layer of muscle, called the myocardium, surrounded by membranes. One-way valves separate the four chambers. (2) Coronary Artery The blood vessels of the heart, including the coronary arteries and veins, carry oxygen.
The heart is made up of three layers. Figure 21.11 shows the epicardium, myocardium, and endocardium. The inner lining of the heart is called the endothelium. Myocardium consists of myocardium cells, which make up the middle layer and most of the heart wall. The outer layer of cells is called the epicardium, and the second layer is a membranous structure called the pericardium that surrounds and protects the heart. It provides enough space for a powerful pump and also protects the heart, reducing friction between the heart and other structures.
The heart has its own blood vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle. The coronary artery surrounds the atrium and the outside of the heart like a crown. They return the oxygenated blood to the right side before returning to the capillaries, where the heart muscle is oxygenated, before reentering the coronary arteries, where the blood is reoxygenated via the pulmonary artery. The heart muscle does not have a stable blood supply. Atherosclerosis is the blockage of an artery by a buildup of fatty plaque. Because of the size (narrow) of the coronary arteries and their role in serving the heart, atherosclerosis can be fatal in these arteries. The slowing of blood flow and subsequent lack of oxygen caused by the narrowing of the arteries can cause severe pain called angina, and the blockage of the arteries can lead to myocardial infarction: the death of heart muscle tissue, commonly known as heart disease.
The main purpose of the heart is to pump blood around the body. It does so in a repeating sequence called a cardiac cycle. The cardiac cycle is the coordination of the heart’s filling and relaxation of blood through electrical signals that cause the heart muscle to contract and relax. The human heart beats more than 100,000 times a day. During each cardiac cycle, the heart contracts (systole), pushing blood out of the body. This is followed by a relaxation phase (diastole) as the heart fills with blood, as shown in Figure 21.12. The atria contract simultaneously, forcing blood through the coronary arteries into the atria. The closing of the heart valves produces a monotonous “loop” sound. After a brief delay, the ventricles simultaneously force blood through the semilunar valves into the arteries and veins into the pulmonary arteries. The closing of the semi-circular valves produces a monotone “thump” sound.
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Figure 21.12. (A) During diastole, the heart muscle relaxes and blood flows into the heart. (2) During early systole, vasoconstriction, pushing blood into the arteries. (3) In atrial fibrillation, the ventricles contract, forcing the heart out of blood.
The pumping of the heart is the function of the cardiac muscle cells, or cardiac muscle cells that make up the heart muscle. Cardiovascular cells, shown in Figure 21.13, are specialized muscle cells that beat like skeletal muscle but are rhythmic and involuntary like smooth muscle. They are connected by intervertebral discs that are only related to the heart muscle. They self-stimulate for a while, and given the right balance of nutrients and electrolytes, the heart’s blood vessels are separated.
Figure 21.13. Cardiovascular cells are muscle cells found in heart tissue. .
The spontaneous beating of heart muscle cells is regulated by the heart’s pacemaker, which uses electrical signals to time the heart to beat. Figure 21.14 shows the electrical signal and the mechanical behavior related to each other. The internal pacemaker originates from the synapse (SA) node located near the right lateral wall. The electrical node leads to spontaneous contraction from the SA node, causing the two atria to contract in unison. The artery reaches a second node, called the atrioventricular (AV) node, between the right ventricle and the right atrium, where it pauses for about 0.1 second before extending into the atrial walls. Electrical impulses from the AV node enter the bundle and then the left and right bundle branches. Finally, the Purkinje fibers send impulses from the apex of the heart to the myocardium, which then causes the ventricles to contract. This pause allows the ventricles to empty completely before the heart can pump blood. Electrical impulses from the heart generate electrical currents that flow through the body and can be measured on the skin using electrodes. This information can be viewed as an electrocardiogram (ECG) – a recording of the electrical impulses of the heart muscle.
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Figure 21.14. The heartbeat is regulated by an electrical current, which results in an ECG reading. This signal is triggered in the sinopole valve. The signal (a) then travels to the atria, causing them to contract. The signal is (b)