# Words Ending In Ow 5 Letters

## Words Ending In Ow 5 Letters

Josh Wardle, a programmer who previously designed social experiments Place and The Button for Reddit, invented Wordle, a web-based word game released in October 2021. Players have six chances to guess five-letter words; feedback is provided in the form of colored tiles for each puzzle, showing which letters are in the correct position and which are in the other position in the answer word. The mechanics are similar to those found in games like Mastermind, except that Wordle determines which letter in each riddle is correct. Each day has the same special answer word for everyone. Jo recently found and shared with me this online word game called Wordle (which actually has a really cool backstory). The rules are simple, and the website explains them well:

To be more clear, here is an example where I was able to guess a word in 4 trials:

From the first guess, I learned that the word ends with a “D” and has an “A” somewhere that isn’t in the 2nd position (and doesn’t have an “F”, “C” or “E”). The second riddle told me that “A” was also not in position 3 (and also did not have “G”, “L” or “N”). The third guess produced “R”, and from there I could only think of one word that matched the constraint (TRIAD), allowing me to solve it in four tries.

Jo and I have solved daily puzzles separately, and we have usually been able to figure out the answer in 4 attempts, which seemed surprisingly low to us! Jo asked me if I thought it was a good score or not, and it struck me that there is a way to learn that question with information theory.

Information theory defines the “entropy” or “information” of a random variable as the number of bits needed to describe it. How does this apply to the guessing game? Let’s look at a simple example.

### Words Ending In Oin 5 Letters

Twenty Questions is a game with a simple premise – can you guess the word I’m thinking of by asking 20 yes/no questions? For those who have not played, it can be surprising to learn that it is easy to do – cheap toys can already guess your words with 20 questions.

How? Well, each question can halve the number of remaining options, if chosen well. If you can choose the perfect question every time, you can go from 8 choices to 4, to 2, to 1 with 3 questions, or from 1000 choices to 1 with 10 questions, or from 1, 000, 000 choices to 1 with 20 question

Since finding one item out of 1,000,000 options can be done with 20 selected questions, we can say that

Who chooses one of them has roughly 20 bits of information. In general, it takes log2(N) bits to describe a choice among N items.

#### Amazon.com: Skill Sharpeners Spell & Write, Grade 2: 0023472045386: Evan Moor Educational Publishers: Books

An important thing to note is that the questions are good only if they roughly divide the search space in half. Questions like “do you think of alligators?” is a bad choice since if you are wrong, you only eliminate one possible choice, leaving N-1 remaining. Another nuance is that in an information theoretical setting you cannot choose your questions based on previous answers, but I will ignore that point for this article.

So how does information theory apply to Wordle? The first question we can try to answer is: “How many bits of information are needed to guess a five-letter word?”. It’s really straightforward – Once we know how many five-letter words there are, by definition, the information content of choosing one of them is just log2(N) bits.

So all we have to do is agree on what a reasonable five letter English word is. I first tried using two data sources:

For each data set, I filtered down to 5-letter words, leaving me with ~16,000, and ~1,600 words, respectively. I took a look at the first dataset and did not like that there are words like “aalii” and “goety”. The second one has all the “normal” words but doesn’t have simple words like “troll”, so I don’t like it either.

#### Letter Words With E As The Second And Fourth Letter

I eventually found the source code and the actual word list that Wordle uses here – it contains ~270k works and ~12.5k 5-letter words. This is the best option to use, as the answer will match the same data source as the game itself. This equates to ~14 bits of information.

The next question to answer is how much information we get from Wordle puzzles. Calculating the information gain for the Twenty Questions puzzle is easy, since each question has exactly two results (one bit). But you learn some more complex information from Wordle puzzles: which letters are not in words, and which ones are in true and false words. How do we calculate the information gain for that?

I left this question in the back of my mind for several days, since I did not see the obvious approach. Then one day last week, I was driving home when I ran out of podcasts (I usually queue up and download) so I turned my attention back to it.

After trying a few different angles, I realized that there is a simple way to think about it. Every time we guess a word the game will return a “coloring” it depends on the answer. We can think of each “word-guess” as consisting of 5 “letters-guess”. Each “letter-guess” will be colored one of 3 ways (green, yellow, or gray).

Using some simple combinations, this means that each “word-guess” has the potential to have 3⁵ or 243 different colors. Because the game will tell us which coloring is possible which coloring is correct, this means that a guess actually gives us log2 (243) or almost 8 bits of information.

Information can be added and subtracted directly – If each guess removes 8 bits of information from a 14-bit variable, then the first guess should give us only 6 bits of information, the second guess should narrow down to one choice, then the third guess should be correct. It was then no surprise that Jo and I could guess the word in 3 or 4 tries. So the mystery is solved!

On the amount on how many benefits a guess can. The benefit of information actually depends on the word we choose and its relation to other words. Intuitively, some words should be very helpful (like the question that divides the space in half in 20 questions), while some are close to useless.

Although I have answered the original question, I am not completely satisfied. I have a new question in my mind: What is the “best” word we can guess, and how much information can we get? To answer this we need to understand exactly what makes a “good” guess.

#### A Systematic Review Of The Use Of Silicone Wristbands For Environmental Exposure Assessment, With A Focus On Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (pahs)

To get an intuition about whether different words are good or bad guesses, let’s look at a small example. Imagine we’re playing Wordle, but only trying to choose between 7 different two-letter words:

If we guess a word, we will get some more coloring it. Let’s draw a table made up of all the possible colors we can get to guess (3 colors, 2 letters, so 9 colorings) and see the answers that match those colorings.

This is a good option to guess, because we will know for sure what is true

Devano Mahardika

Halo, Saya adalah penulis artikel dengan judul Words Ending In Ow 5 Letters yang dipublish pada September 22, 2022 di website Caipm