Six Letters Invention Codycross
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Six Letters Invention Codycross
Braille, a universally accepted writing system used by and for the blind, has a code of 63 characters, each one to six high points arranged in a six position matrix or cell. These braille characters are drawn in lines on paper and are read by gently running the fingers over the handwriting. Louis Braille, who was blind at the age of three, invented the system in 1824 at the Institut National des Jeunes Aviules (National Institute for Blind Children) in Paris.
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Frenchman Valentin Hay was the first person to invent paper as a means of reading for the blind. Printing common letters in relief led others to produce simpler versions; But, with one exception, they are no longer used. The only exception is the moon type, invented in 1845 by William Moon in Brighton, England, which partially contained the Roman alphabet and was easily learned by blind people in later life. Such books are still used by the elderly, especially in Great Britain.
When Louis Braille attended a school for the blind in Paris, in 1819, he learned a tactile writing system using points invented by Charles Barbier several years earlier. It was called night writing and was long thought to be intended for nighttime battlefield communications. However, Barbier’s writings hoped that the system could be used by people with sight and hearing problems and people who could not get formal education. In 1824, when Braille was just 15 years old, he invented the six-point “cell” system. He used Barbier’s system as a starting point and cut the 12-point structure in half. The system was first published in 1829. A more complete explanation appeared in 1837.
To help identify the 63 different dot patterns or characters possible in a six-dot cell, Braille numbers the dot positions 1-2-3 in the lower left and 4-5-6 in the lower right. The first 10 letters of the Latin alphabet:
– They are created by points 1, 2, 4 and 5. When preceded by a numerical indicator (dots 3, 4, 5 and 6), these symbols have numerical values. The letters
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. The remaining five letters of the alphabet and the five most common words are formed by adding dots 3 and 6 to the symbols they represent.
And 9 common letter combinations are created. Punctuation marks and two more common letter combinations are made by placing symbols that represent letters.
In point position 2, 3, 5 and 6. A combination of three final letters as well as a number indicator and two more punctuation marks are formed with different combinations of dots 3, 4, 5 and 6. Seven additional point patterns are created by points 4, 5 and 6; Some represent features such as capital letters or italics, while others are unique to the cell-based structure of Braille. Like the numeral indicator, these symbols act as modifiers when placed before other symbols. Applying this principle, different symbols can work in different ways. For example, a dot 5 is added before the letter symbol.
The Braille system was immediately adopted and used by his fellow students, but it was slow to gain widespread acceptance. The system was not officially adopted by the School in Paris until 1854, two years after Braille’s death. A universal Braille code was not developed for the English-speaking world until 1932, when representatives of the Blind Agency of Great Britain and the United States met in London and agreed on the second part of the system known as Standard English Braille. In 1957, Anglo-American experts met again in London to further improve the system.
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In addition to literary braille codes, there are other meanings that use braille cells, but are assigned to each configuration. Nemeth’s Code of Braille Mathematical and Scientific Notation (1965) provides for the representation in Braille of many special symbols used in advanced mathematical and technical materials. There are special Braille codes or modifications for musical notation, shorthand, and, of course, many of the world’s most common languages.
Writing Braille by hand is done by holding two metal plates together and inserting paper between them using a device called a calculator. Some boards have a wooden base or guide board to which the paper is attached. The upper part of the two metal plates, the guide, has cell-sized windows; Under each, in the bottom plate, are six small holes in a braille dot pattern. A stylus is used to press the paper into the holes to create raised points. A person using Braille writes from right to left; When the sheet is turned over, the dots face up and are read from left to right.
Braille is also produced by special machines with six keys, one for each dot in a Braille cell. The first Braille typewriter, the Howell Braille Writer, was invented in 1892 by Frank H. Hull, superintendent of the Illinois School for the Blind. A modified form of this device is still in use today, as are later, similar devices. One innovation to produce Braille was the electric embossing machine, similar to an electric typewriter, and electronic computer operation is now commonplace.