Words With Letters Anchovy
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Words With Letters Anchovy
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By Betul Buyuktiryaki 1 , Marzio Masini 2 , Francesca Mori 3 , Simona Barni 3 , Giulia Liccioli 3 , Lucrezia Sarti 3 , Lorenzo Lodi 4 , Mattia Giovannini 3, 5, * , George du Toit 5, 6, 7 , Andreas Lupata , † and Maria Andrea Marques-Mejias 5, 6, †
Department of Health Sciences, Department of Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Florence and Meir Children’s Hospital, 50139 Florence, Italy
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Pediatric Allergy Group, Department of Women’s and Children’s Health, School of Life Sciences, King’s College London, London SE5 9NU, UK
Pediatric Allergy Service, Evelina Children’s Hospital London, Guy’s and St Thomas’s Family Trust, London SE1 7EH, UK
Peter Gorer Department of Immunobiology, School of Immunology and Microbial Sciences, King’s College London, London SE5 9NU, UK
Molecular Allergy Research Laboratory, College of Public Health, Medical and Veterinary Sciences, Australian Institute of Health and Tropical Medicine, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia
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Received: December 11, 2020 / Revised: January 8, 2021 / Accepted: January 11, 2021 / Published: January 18, 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue IgE-Mediated Food Allergy in Children: Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Prevention and Management)
Fish allergy is a serious problem worldwide. Its prevalence has been calculated to be up to 7% in pediatric populations, and in many cases it continues into adulthood with life-threatening signs and symptoms. The following review focuses on the epidemiology of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated fish allergy, its pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, and a thorough approach to diagnosis and management in the pediatric population. The traditional approach to fish allergy management is avoidance and rescue medication for accidental exposure. Avoiding food poses many obstacles and is not easily maintained. In the specific case of fish, food is also not the only source of allergens; Aerosolization of fish proteins during cooking is a common source of highly allergenic provolbumin, and elimination diets cannot prevent these exposures. New management approaches based on immunomodulation are a promising strategy for the future of these patients.
Allergen; basophil activation test; diagnosis of a resolved component; fish allergy; immunoglobulin E; management board; oral food challenge; parvalbumin; Pediatrics; Allergen for skin prick testing; basophil activation test; diagnosis of a resolved component; fish allergy; immunoglobulin E; management board; oral food challenge; parvalbumin; Pediatrics; Skin prick test
Modeling Sardine And Anchovy Low Frequency Variability
Fish consumption has seen a steady increase in recent years, both in adults and children. Several factors play a part in this trend, including the benefits of increased consumption of antioxidants and omega-3 fatty acids, making fish meat of fundamental importance in the growing child’s diet. Furthermore, it has been suggested that an increased representation of omega-3 fatty acids in a child’s diet can play a significant role in preventing the future development of atopic diseases [1, 2, 3]. However, fish allergy can represent a serious problem worldwide, with a prevalence of up to 7% in the pediatric population , and in many cases persists into adulthood with life-threatening signs and symptoms.
This review aims to outline the epidemiology of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated fish allergy in children worldwide, its pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and an in-depth approach to diagnosis, focusing on serological and molecular investigations. Finally, we will discuss traditional and modern approaches and positions regarding fish allergy management and treatment and prospects for its future.
Fish is one of the most common foods responsible for allergic reactions in children and adults worldwide [1, 2, 4]. Because only a minority of fish allergy cases tend to disappear with age [5, 6], this clinical condition is routinely reported to be more common in adults than in children, the opposite of what is typically observed in other common childhood allergies, such as milk and egg. Exact rates of fish allergy are difficult to quantify because multiple variables are involved in how prevalence is measured. In addition to the age mentioned above, other factors are critical, such as geography: fish allergy is more common in countries where fish is one of the dietary components of the culture, and therefore fish consumption is higher. Another variable is how allergy is assessed, for example, self-reported, confirmed by a physician, confirmed by skin prick test (SPT) or serum specific IgE (sIgE), or confirmed by oral food problems (OFCs), with higher nos. observed with the first methods and less with the latter.
When investigated using self/parent assessment methods, the highest prevalence was measured in Finnish children, ranging from 5%  to 7% . On the contrary, the lowest (0.0001%) was measured among 0-2 year olds in Israel . A significant prevalence is reported in the United Arab Emirates , where 2.8% of children aged 6 to 9 years reported having reacted to the ingestion of fish. In Europe, the highest prevalence was found in countries with a traditional fish-centered diet, including Finland as well as other Scandinavian countries such as Norway (3% ), and Spain : in a study by Crespo et al.  Fish accounted for 17.8% of the allergic reactions recorded in a group of pediatric patients with food allergy positive for SPT and sIgE.
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Indeed, these numbers decrease when we consider studies where susceptibility was assessed by in vivo or in vitro methods: in Europe, Finnish children show a susceptibility prevalence of 0.3% , higher rates were reported for British (1.3 % ) and French (0.7 % ) children. Even fewer children were classified as allergic to fish when we consider studies where OFCs were performed: 0% in Denmark , 0.0006% in the UK , 0.0002% in Turkey  and 0.2% in Iceland . The overall point prevalence of OFC-endorsed fish allergy in Europe was estimated at 0.06% in a meta-analysis by Nwaru et al. .
Fish consumption is perhaps the highest in the Asian continent, with Japan averaging 54 kg per year per capita, reflecting the high prevalence rates of fish allergy observed in several Asian countries . Connett et al. in 2012 reported a prevalence of 2.29 %, 0.26% and 0.29%, respectively, in the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand by a survey of a group of 25,842 students aged 14-16 . Another Lao-Aria study, using parent questionnaires, showed a lifetime prevalence among children In the Thai preschool age of 1.1% . In a cross-sectional study of over 8000 children in Vietnam, aged 2-6 years, 1.62% had a self-reported fish allergy, while the physician diagnosed decreased to 1.24% of the population examined . In China , a study of infants reported an SPT-confirmed prevalence of fish allergy of 0.21% [ 26 ], reflecting a difference in prevalence between self-reported and SPT-confirmed/physician-diagnosed studies.
In the Americas, the highest prevalence, as recorded in a random telephone survey, was seen in the United States (USA), where a study surveyed more than 38,000 children aged 0-18 with a prevalence of fish allergy ranging from 0.3% (0-2 years old) to 0.6% (over 11 years of age) . A recent study showed a remarkable and dramatic difference in the prevalence of fish allergy in different ethnic groups in the USA: in a group of patients with sIgE or SPT confirmation of food allergy, fish was the cause of the allergen in 3.4% of white patients , 16.16% of Hispanics, and an outstanding 34.39% of African-American children, showing the overwhelming ethnic effect over simple geography when determining food sensitivity . In Canadian children, the prevalence was 0.18% when considering “probable allergy” (corresponding clinical history reported by parent questionnaires) .
Scarce African data: a 2010 questionnaire-based study showed a prevalence of fish allergy of 0.3% in Ghanaian children aged 5–16 years .
Pdf) Winter Abundance And Species Composition Of Anchovy Larvae Associated With Hydrological Conditions In The Coastal Waters Of Tanshui, Taiwan
Adverse reactions to fish are common in adults and children, but IgE-mediated reactions represent only a small proportion (although the most common). A summary of immunological and non-immunological side effects will be described.
IgE-mediated reactions to fish are the end result of a process that begins, like any allergic reaction.