Cereal Crop 4 Letters
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Cereal Crop 4 Letters
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Integrated Crop Management Practices For Maximizing Grain Yield Of Double Season Rice Crop
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Received: 1 October 2020 / Revised: 28 November 2020 / Accepted: 2 December 2020 / Published: 4 December 2020
A four-year trial began in 2011 for the EV. Smith Research Station, in central Alabama, to find out the effect of sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) elimination methods in organically grown kale (Brassica oleracea, var. acephala L.) in the fresh market and cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) for wheat. Three different methods were chosen to eliminate the solar shirt cover crop: (1) rolling/crimping with a double roller/crimper experiment, (2) rotary shearing, and (3) rotary shearing by combining (disking). Kale plots were harvested in the winter and rye plots were harvested the following spring. Kale plots were fallow from January to June (kept mowed) until sun shirt was planted again in all plots in late spring of the following growing season. Over four growing seasons, the average sunn hemp biomass (dry basis) was 10, 981 kg per hectare.
Response Of Wheat, Pea, And Canola To Micronutrient Fertilization On Five Contrasting Prairie Soils
With a plant height of 2.4 m. The C/N ratio of sunn hemp was 23:1. Amounts of Sunn hemp biomass varied between cultivation periods (from 5589 to 14,720 kg per hectare
) due to different weather conditions. The yield of Kale varies with the growing seasons, with a maximum yield of 17, 565 kg per hectare.
) in 2014 due to high weed pressure. In general, sunn hemp residue management affected kale yield, with greater yields measured for cut and combined residue (15,054 kg ha.
). Lower yields were associated with poor kale seed-to-soil (hair pinning) from large amounts of hemp sun residue on the soil surface. Over four growing seasons, cereal rye yield varied among growing seasons, with an average yield of 1358 kg per hectare.
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Organic kale; sun hemp; to close the termination of the plant; roller/crimper; cereal rye grain organic kale; sun hemp; to close the termination of the plant; roller/crimper; rye cereal
In conservation programs, cover crops are used to improve soil characteristics and increase the growth of cash crops. Over the past decade, the use of cover crops in conservation agriculture has steadily increased. Benefits associated with cover crops include reduced soil erosion, reduced runoff, and increased water infiltration. In addition to improving soil and groundwater quality, cover beans can add nitrogen to the atmosphere and release nitrogen from the soil for use by subsequent grain crops. Cover crops are very important in organic production systems, where commercial fertilizers are scarce and expensive. In addition, the production of healthy foods and vegetables on small local farms is increasing as US consumers realize the need to eat quality foods and vegetables. Grocery stores and restaurants have found success in selling locally grown and organic vegetables to their customers at added value and profit. Kale (Brassica oleracea, var. acephala L.) provides an abundance of vitamins and minerals that are beneficial to human health. It is one of the most cold hardy vegetables, able to withstand temperatures below freezing up to 8 °C. Brassicas, including kale, are an excellent source of vitamin K, vitamin A (in the form of carotenoids), manganese, vitamin C, dietary fiber and calcium. In addition, brassicas are a very good source of vitamin B1, vitamin B6 and iron .
According to the National Agricultural Statistics Service , in the United States, 2500 farms reported early harvest in 2012, which is a 262% increase from 954 farms in 2007. 1616 hectares in 2007 to 2532 hectares in 2012 [2, 3 ]
Kale can be grown in a wide range of soils. The best production can be obtained from low acid or neutral (pH 6-6.5) deep soils with a loamy texture and the right amount of water and air. Brassica plants have high nutrient requirements. Therefore, basic soil preparation involves intensive tillage and application of high amounts of organic manure . Kale plants respond positively to nitrogen fertilizer by improving plant growth and delaying premature bolting, although the concern about nitrate (NO3-N) accumulation in plant tissues and environmental pollution should be emphasized .
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To reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizer, there is a need to determine the ability of the cover crop sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L.) to fix and release nitrogen from the air that can be found in the cash crop (ie, kale). Sunn hemp (summer beans) originated in India and Pakistan and has great benefits including protection from soil erosion, building organic matter in its high biomass (from 5560 to 6670 kg per hectare).
Nitrogen  in a short period of time. Sunn hemp seeds are produced mainly in India, Columbia, South Africa, and USA in Hawaii . According to USDA-NRCS , the biomass production of sunn hemp as a summer cover crop in Alabama can exceed 5600 kg per hectare.
Of nitrogen. Balkcom and Reeves  reported that the yield of sunn hemp biomass in central Alabama is 7600 kg per hectare.
Sunn hemp management, such as planting date, can affect the performance of the next crop. Balcom et al.  examined how two different planting dates of sunn hemp following wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) harvest (early and late June) and maize (Zea mays L.) harvest (late August and early September) affected the yield of cereal rye (Secale ). cereale L.) is grown as a winter cover crop. Biomass production of rice after wheat planting was 38% higher in two growing seasons compared to fallow. The production of rye biomass after planting in the sun after corn was equal to that of fallow in the two growing seasons. Despite the ability of sunn hemp to produce significant biomass in a short period of time, Balkcom et al.  attributed the low growth rate following corn to limited solar production of hemp biomass. As a result, the N gain was less compared to sunn hemp following wheat.
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Termination is also an important management consideration. In no-till systems, proper methods of eliminating cover crop residues are important. Planting grain crops in soils with large amounts of cover crop residue on the surface of the soil can be difficult. Many researchers have reported that large amounts of different cover crop residues resulted in a hairy attachment condition where the seeds did not have sufficient seed-to-soil contact for proper germination and growth . A previous field study by Kornecki et al. [11, 12]) and no-till cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) showed that large amounts of cereal rye residue on the surface of the soil caused the wrapping of the cover crop residue in row cleaners and coulters that prevented good contact between the seed and the soil, which created a condition of hair sucking.
For centuries, cereal rye has been an important grain eaten in different parts of the world—Scandinavia, mainly influenced by Finland, Russia, Germany, Poland, Ukraine and other regions of the former Soviet Union with extreme cold climates. Rye consumption is closely related to regional cuisine. Cereal rye is a climate-resistant cereal grain, able to be grown in soils and conditions that are not suitable for wheat and other grains .
Commonly used in breads, savory breads, and fermented beverages, rice can be substituted for wheat, brown rice, spelt, or other grains in a wide variety of foods, both savory and sweet. In the United States, it is mostly considered a small grain; however, its use has increased significantly in recent decades due to its perceived improvement in nutritional quality. The growing interest of rye among consumers in general and processed grains is mainly due to the potential health benefits associated with bioactive enriched grains and a reduced risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, certain types of cancer and type 2 diabetes  , 15 , 16 ]. Furthermore, the role of high dietary fiber in rye to be positive