Words Made From These Letters Below

Words Made From These Letters Below – Orthographic mapping is the process by which children learn to recognize each letter of the alphabet and how each letter represents a single sound. This is how words become sight words. In this post, you will learn how orthographic mapping develops and how phoneme grapheme mapping is used in literacy teaching to develop students’ orthographic mapping skills.

These phoneme grapheme mapping activities follow what the science of reading research shows to be most effective in teaching reading.

Words Made From These Letters Below

Words Made From These Letters Below

Orthography refers to a system that represents sounds or spoken language using letters or other symbols, such as punctuation. Or it can refer to a person’s handwriting style or keyboarding technique, since these motor skills are related to the phonetic writing (ie, spelling) of words. The term “orthography” also has a more precise meaning in linguistics: namely, that it refers only to the appearance of written language on paper, not excluding the consideration of the sound of speech.

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Orthographic mapping is how students learn to identify each letter of the alphabet and how each letter represents one sound. For example, if a student says “O” when you ask them what letter says its name (the letter O), this means that they have acquired the correct mapping for that sound and letter.

This isn’t an activity you can do—it’s a mental process that happens in the background as students learn to read.

Decoding is the process of breaking down words into sequences of sounds to determine the correct pronunciation. Orthographic mapping means recognizing the visual outline of a word and using the word without having to say it out loud. It recognizes the string of letters that make up a word.

Decoding looks like the words are spoken aloud, but if the word was already orthographically mapped, it would be read immediately.

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Sight words are words that we learn to recognize and read without having to sound them out or break them into parts.

As we continue reading, we will build sight word vocabulary. This is because words and word parts map orthographically over time. They are now stored in long-term memory.

If you’re interested in teaching high-frequency words (aka sight words) in a way that develops orthographic mapping, check out my Heart Words Method blog post.

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Words Made From These Letters Below

When children learn to read, they start by hearing each individual sound in a word. They are still building their sight word vocabulary at the same time.

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Over time, they begin to recognize patterns in what they read because certain sounds appear over and over again in words.

When children are introduced to new words, they use their sight vocabulary to decode the new word because they have already created orthographic maps for those words.

But for this to happen, students must be proficient in phoneme awareness and have automatic letter-sound associations. Therefore, in the early years, students need a lot of activities that focus on phonemic awareness and letter-sound associations.

According to Dr. David Kilpatrick, author of Equipped for Reading Success, children can begin to read new “pseudowords” with up to 30 percent accuracy of phoneme-grapheme relationships (e.g. letter-sound correspondences). time by the end of second grade and 100% accuracy by the end of third grade (pages 65-66).

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According to Kilpatrick, poor readers do not naturally acquire orthographic mapping because they lack sophisticated phonemic awareness.

Now, you wouldn’t actually do it like above because those tasks are at different levels of difficulty, but I just wanted to give you an example of what advanced phonemic awareness tasks look like. You usually focus on one at a time, like removing just the opening sound and then moving on to removing the ending sound.

Check out my daily phonemic awareness activity cards for quick daily activities that incorporate advanced phonemic awareness skills.

Words Made From These Letters Below

In addition to doing phonological and phonemic awareness activities like the ones above, phoneme-grapheme mapping also develops orthographic mapping.

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Phoneme grapheme mapping is a visual way of representing the relationship between phonemes (sounds) and their graphemes (letters). Students match the sound they hear with the letter or letters that represent that sound.

This can also be called word mapping. The template pictured below is part of my SOR Quick Start Guide, which you can access here.

You can grab my free template (pictured above) from my free library or the paid version (pictured below) that includes teaching tips, a lesson outline, and blank templates for words with 2-5 sounds.

I use the Heart Word method for irregularly written high frequency words. You can read more about it here and find my Heart Words Mapping template below.

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Long time readers know how much I love Elkonin boxes! I use them all the time because they really help develop these critical reading skills that all students need.

Use the sound boxes with chips to count phonemes, match phonemes to sounds, write graphemes (letters) on the boxes to write words, combine sounds, delete, add and replace sounds, and more!

. Start with the letters /o/ and /p/. Ask students to map these two sounds and match them to /op/.

Words Made From These Letters Below

Next, add the sound before /op/. Say something like “this manipulation says /t/” and put it before /op/. Ask students to say the new word. Ask them to underline the /op/.

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Do this with a few more words and ask students to find the letters that say /op/ in all the words.

Another rime activity is using phonogram cards (sound spelling cards) to blend initial sounds into rime.

Place 3 stacks of audio cards: the starting audio and 2 cards that form the border. Then change the initial letter so students can hear the new word with the same sound.

Card to reveal a new letter. Continue to change the original sound. Students should focus on decoding the sound and mix it quickly with /ain/ so that they don’t hear /ain/ every time the original sound is changed.

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You can also create word sorting walls in the classroom to display some of the hoops you teach and have students practice exercises that mix beginning and ending rhymes.

Students love using these bubble poppers and they are a great tool for phoneme segmentation. Below you can see that they can be used to listen or say a word and create a bubble for each sound they hear and the option to write the word afterwards. I have a free template for this Bubble Popper worksheet in my free library.

Try a sound wall instead of a word wall. Because sound walls focus on phonemes and their various graphemes, it’s a great foundation. Students learn the sounds and the different spellings of each sound in a phonetically reasonable way.

Words Made From These Letters Below

See my post on sound walls here. And you can grab my sound wall resources in my store to set up a sound wall in your room quickly and easily.

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I hope this post has helped you learn more about the process of orthographic mapping and how it affects literacy instruction. Hopefully you can add phoneme grapheme mapping activities to your lessons to help students develop their orthographic mapping skills.

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Words Made From These Letters Below

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